About China Map :-
The People's Republic of China is the most populous country in the world. This Map of China depicts the major urban zones and cities in the country including:
Altay, Hotan, Korla, and Aksu to the west.
Xining, Guiyang, Jining, Lanzhou in the central regions.
Haikou, Macau, Hong Kong, Nanjing, Canton, Luizhou, and Nanning to the south.
Shanghai, Yantai, Qingdao, and Tongshan to the east.
Beijing, Changchun, Harbin, and Hulun Buir to the north.
The map is an easy guide to top tourist attractions in China; the Terra Cotta Warriors, Red Hill of Urumqi, the Flaming Mountain of Turpan, the Forbidden City Museum, Temple of Heaven, Hanging Temple of Beijing, Porcelain Tower, Tiger Hill Pagoda, Lingering Garden, Elephant Trunk Hill in and around Shanghai, Yellow Crane Tower, Seven Star Park, Giant Pandas, and Stone Forest of the south.
Geography of China
The People’s Republic of China is located in Asia. It is bound by Kazakhstan, Russia
and Mongolia, in the north; North Korea, by land, and Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and The Philippines, by sea, in the east; Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, Bhutan, and Nepal, in the south; and India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Kyrgyzstan, in the west.
Administratively, China is divided into 22 Provinces (shengs), five Autonomous Regions (zizhiqus), four Government-controlled Municipalities (shihs) and two Special Autonomous Regions (Hong Kong
). The country claims sovereignty over Taiwan as its 23rd province.
Despite its large latitude extent, the country has only one time zone, CST - China Standard Time (UTC +8) and it does not utilize daylight saving time.
Area of China
The geographic coordinates of the country are 35° N and 105° E. The total area of the country is 3.705 million square miles (9.597 million square km), and this makes it the 4th largest country in the world. Of this total area; the land area is 3.705 million square miles (9.570 million square km), while the remaining is covered by water. The northernmost point of the country is Mohe Village, in the Heilongjiang Province, and the southernmost point is Hai’an, in Guangdong Province. However, the disputed southernmost point is Zengmu Ansha, or James Shoal, in the Spratly Islands. The easternmost point is Fuyuan County, in Heilongjiang Province, and the westernmost point is Akto County, in Xinjiang Province.
The highest point in the country is Mount Everest, in Tingri County, Shigatse (Xigaze) Area of Tibet Autonomous Region, which is 29,029 feet (8,848 m) high, while the lowest point is Turpan Pendi, in the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, which lies at 505 feet (154 m) below sea level.
Landforms in China
By virtue of its vast geographical extent, China is endowed with diverse landforms that include hills, mountains, high plateaus, deserts, plains, and deltas.
The Himalayas lie to the South and West, and are home to some of the highest mountains in the country, and the world, including Mt. Everest – also called Zhumulangma, or Qomolangma – Mt. K2 – also called Chogo Ri – Namjagbarwa Peak, Minya Konka, Meili Snow Mountains, Mt. Kailash, The Daocheng-Sanshen Mountain group, Mt. Emei, Mt. Huashan, and Mt. Huangshan.
China is said to have more than 22,000 rivers, including major rivers; Yangtze River (Changjiang), Yellow River (Huanghe), Heilongjiang River, Songhuajiang River, Zhujiang River (The Pearl), Brahmaputra River (Yaluzangbujiang), Lancang River (Lancang Jiang), Nujiang River, Hanjiang River (Han Jiang), and Liaohe River (Liao He). The Yangtze River is the longest river in the country. Most of the rivers originate in the west and flow eastwards.
Freshwater lakes in the country are mostly found in the middle-lower Yangtze Plain, and include; Poyang, Dongting, Taihu, and Hongze. The lakes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau include; Qinghai, Nam Co, and Siling, these are saltwater lakes.
The total estimated population of China as of 2016 is 1,373,541,278. The estimated birthrate is 12.4 births per 1,000, and the death rate is 7.7 deaths per 1,000. The infant mortality rate is 12.2 deaths per 1,000 live births. The sex ratio is estimated to be 1.15 males, and the growth rate of the population is estimated at 0.43%.
The life expectancy at birth in China is 75.5 years (2016 estimate). Estimated expenditure on healthcare for the year 2014 was 5.5% of the total gross domestic product (GDP).
Any person above the age of 15, who can read and write, is considered literate. The literacy rate in China is 96.4% (2015 estimate).
The estimated figures for the year 2016 for age structure in China shows that 17.1% of the population consist of children between 0-14 years; 13.27% of the population is in the early working age between 15-24 years; 48.42% of the population is in the prime working age between 25-54 years; 10.87% of the population is in the mature working age between 55-64 years, and 10.35% of the population is in the elderly age of 65 years and over.
As per the 2015 estimate, 55.6% of the total population in China is classified as urban population, while the remaining 44.4% is classified as rural population.
Officially, China is an atheist country. However, followers of Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism, Christianity, as well as other religions are found in the country.
The languages spoken in China are Chinese or Mandarin, Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects and other minority languages. The official language of the country is Mandarin, but some of the provinces have their own official languages. Zhuang is spoken in Guangxi Zhuang province, Yue in Guangdong province, Mongolian in Nei Mongol province, Uighur in Xinjiang Uygur province, Kyrgyz in Xinjiang Uyghur province, and Tibetan in Xizang (Tibet).
The ethnic groups of the country consist mainly of Han Chinese and Zuang. Other groups found are Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai, and other nationalities.
History of China
The country has one of the oldest civilizations in the world. There are several ways in which the classification of the historical periods in China can be attempted.
One way is to take into account the broad historical periods – the period of The Ancient Dynasties, The Imperial Era, The Emergence of Modern China, the period of Republican China, and the period of the People’s Republic of China.
Another way would be to divide the periods according to the stages that the society has gone through – the periods of the Primitive Society, Slave Society, Feudal Society, Semi-feudal, and Semi-Colonial Society, and Socialist Society.
China's history can also be chronicled based on the periods of the different dynasties that have ruled the country:
- ca. 2000 - 1500 BC: Xia Dynasty was established by Qi, the son of Yu the Great.
- 1700 - 1027 BC: Shang Dynasty was established by Tang and ruled by 31 emperors.
- 1027 - 771 BC: Western Zhou was founded by Zhou Wuwang (Ji Fa) after defeating Shang.
- 770 - 221 BC: Eastern Zhou.
- 221 - 207 BC: Qin Dynasty was established by Emperor Qin Shi Huang who is best known for the army of terracotta warriors in his tomb complex in Xian.
- 206 BC - AD 9: Western Han Dynasty.
- AD 9 - 24: The Xin Dynasty was established by Wang Mang.
- AD 25 - 220: Eastern Han Dynasty.
- AD 220 - 280: Three Kingdoms (220-265: Wei Dynasty, 221-263: Shu Dynasty, 229-280: Wu Dynasty ruled in China.)
- AD 265 - 316: Western Jin Dynasty was established by Sima Yan.
- AD 317 - 420: Eastern Jin Dynasty was founded by Sima Rui.
- AD 420 - 588: Southern and Northern Dynasties
[420-588: Southern Dynasties (420-478: Song Dynasty, 479-501: Qi Dynasty, 502-556: Liang Dynasty, 557-588: Chen Dynasty)]
[386-588: Northern Dynasties (386-533: Northern Wei Dynasty, 534-549: Eastern Wei Dynasty, 535-557: Western Wei Dynasty, 550-577: Northern Qi Dynasty, 557-588: Northern Zhou Dynasty)]
Timeline of Major Events in China
- AD 581 - 617: Sui Dynasty.
- AD 618 - 907: Tang Dynasty.
- AD 907 - 960: Five Dynasties (907-923: Later Liang Dynasty, 923-936: Later Tang Dynasty, 936-946: Later Jin Dynasty, 947-950: Later Han Dynasty, 951-960: Later Zhou Dynasty.)
- AD 907 - 979: Ten Kingdoms.
- AD 960 - 1279: Song Dynasty (960 - 1127: Northern Song Dynasty was established by Zhao Kuangyin, 1127 - 1279: Southern Song Dynasty was established by Zhao Gou.)
- AD 916 - 1125: Liao Dynasty was established by Yelv Abaoji.
- AD 1038 - 1227: Western Xia Dynasty was founded by the Tanguts (Dangxiang) people.
- AD 1115 - 1234: Jin Dynasty was founded by the Jurchen people.
- AD 1279 - 1368: Yuan Dynasty was founded by the Mongol, Kublai Khan.
- AD 1368 - 1644: Ming Dynasty was founded by Zhu Yuan-zhang and ruled by 19 emperors.
- AD 1644 - 1911: Qing Dynasty was established by the Manchu people.
- AD 1911 - 1949: Republic of China (in mainland China.)
- AD 1949 -: Republic of China (in Taiwan.)
- AD 1949 -: People's Republic of China
- 21st to 17th century BC: Xia, the first hereditary dynasty in Chinese ancient history, was established by forming a league of different tribes.
- 11th century BC to 771 BC: The Han Chinese nationality came into being.
- 476 to 221 BC: This period witnessed conflict between the seven major states of Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei and Qin.
- 221 to 207 BC: King Ying Zheng built the first Great Wall of China. Standardization of weights and measures and the uniform system of writing for the entire country were established.
- 206 BC to 24 AD: This period saw great improvements in agriculture, handicrafts and commerce.
- 25 to 220 AD: The Silk Road to Europe was opened. Buddhism was introduced in China. Taoism was also founded in the country during this period.
- 220 to 280 AD: The phase saw confrontations among the three kingdoms of Wei, Shu and Wu.
- 581 to 618 AD: The Imperial Examination System was founded.
- 618 to 907 AD: Under successive emperors of the Tang Dynasty, this period saw great achievements in politics, economy, military, culture and diplomacy. It also saw China’s influence spreading among the neighboring countries as well as around the world.
- 1271 to 1368 AD: For the first time in Chinese history, a minority regime was established by the Mongols. Beijing became the capital of China and westerners, including Marco Polo, visited the country. This was also the period when the Great Wall of China was completed.
1644 to 1911: The Chinese Empire reached its zenith at the beginning of this period. The ‘Boxer Rebellion’ sought to establish traditional rule and drive out the foreigners but was defeated by foreign intervention. At the end of this period, China became a semi-colony and semi-feudal society.
- 1912 to 1949: Over 2000 years of feudal system came to an end. On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People’s Republic of China.
- 1950 to 2000: The five-year economic plan, the ‘Great Leap Forward’, was launched and abandoned. Large-scale revolt was suppressed in Tibet. Economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping put China on the road to transformation. The Cultural Revolution resulted in massive social, economic and political upheaval. In 1979, the government imposed the 'One-child' policy to curb the growing population. China opened its door to foreign investment with its ‘Open-door' policy in the late 80s; however, the Tiananmen Square incident where 200 students were killed during protests led to international outrage. It was followed by international sanctions. In 1997, the sovereignty over Hong Kong was transferred to China.
- In 2003, Astronaut Yang Liwei went to space in China’s first manned spacecraft.
- In 2006, the Three Gorges Dam was completed. The world’s highest train route, the China-Tibet railway line, began operation.
- In 2008, China hosted the Olympic Games in Beijing.
- In 2013, the Communist Party leadership announced the relaxation of the 'One-child' policy.
- In 2014, China's trade surplus jumped to $ 31.9 billion.
People's Republic of China is one of the five communist states remaining in the world. China's form of government has been called communist, as well as socialist and authoritarian, with considerable restrictions on the freedom of press and people's right to reproduce, and practice religion.
The members of the People's Congress are directly elected, and the members of the National People's Congress in China are indirectly elected by the People's Congress. Hence, there is a limited scope for democratic processes in the party.
China is divided into 22 provinces. There are also five subdivisions, autonomous regions based on minority groups, four municipalities, and two special administrative regions – Hong Kong and Macau – which are mostly autonomous.
From historical monuments and large cities to beaches and diverse landscapes, China has plenty to offer to discerning travelers. Cities such as Beijing and Shanghai
, offer cultural experiences, low-cost shopping, nightlife, and historic sites. The regional varieties of food in China can be sampled across the country, as well as cuisines influenced by other nearby countries.
Major tourist destinations in China include the Great Wall of China
, a 5,500 mile-long (8,850 kilometer) wall, and Mount Everest, the highest mountain on earth. Special administrative regions, Macau and Hong Kong
, dish out a unique experience to visitors. Macau, which was a Portuguese colony until recently, has an influence of European and Asian cultures. It is known for its casinos and resorts.
The education system in the People's Republic of China is run by the state's Ministry of Education. Education is mandatory from age six to 15. The Chinese government has pledged to provide free education to students for nine years, from elementary school to middle school. Most children residing in urban parts of China also attend high school for three years after middle school. The education system in China has produced results, with mathematics, science, and literacy programs at the top of world rankings.
The majority of universities in China are public, with only 6% of students attending private institutions. There are a large number of schools of higher education in China.
Last Updated on: October 13th, 2017
- The Song Dynasty was the first government ever to issue paper money and create a permanent standing navy.
- China's four great inventions are the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing.
- The Pekingese dog, which has Chinese origins and is named for Beijing, was the dog of Chinese emperors.
- Silk originated in China before 3500 BC, and today, the People's Republic of China is the biggest producer of silk.
- Since 1978, the People's Republic of China has had a one-child policy, which limits the number of children a couple is allowed to have in an effort to slow population growth.