About Illinois Map: Bordered by Kentucky, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, and Wisconsin, this midwestern state is often known as The Prairie State for being home to one of the endangered ecosystems in the world. Chicago River – world’s only river that flows backward – is not the only attraction in Illinois. The capital city of Springfield and the famous attractions in Chicago – Art Institute of Chicago and Willis Tower – are clearly depicted on the map. Rail network criss-crossing the state and the airports lcoated near Cambridge, Naperville, Cicero, and Clinton are shown.
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History of Illinois:
Around (10,000-8,000) BC, the Paleo Indians rambled the area and lived in small camps in the coniferous forests. Then, began the archaic period where the archaic Indians occupied the deciduous forests and lived in small groups, hunted deer, weaved baskets, etc.
There were evidence of the early arrival of French explorers and missionaries in the region. In the year 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet were returning after a trip from Mississippi, when they happened to paddle the Illinois River with the intention of exploring further. In the year 1680, other French explorers arrived and built a fort at what is today known as Peoria. Subsequently in the year 1682, a fort was built on Starved Rock in what is today famously known as Starved Rock State Park.
A number of French Canadians started inhabiting the areas along the Mississippi River. Illinois was at the time a part of La Louisiane, the French empire. With the defeat of France in the hands of British in the Seven Years' War and by the Treaty of Paris of 1763 that brought an end to the French and Indian Wars, France had to surrender all of the Illinois country to Britain.
In the year 1783, the Treaty of Paris extended the boundaries of the United States to include Illinois country. In a compromise that followed, Virginia surrendered its hold on Illinois to the newly formed United States and under the ordinance of 1787 the area came under the Northwest Territory. In 1800, the congress made Illinois a part of the Indiana Territory and in 1809 Illinois became a separate territory. Kaskaskia was made its capital. It was on 3 December 1818, that Illinois achieved statehood and became the 21st US state. The end of the Black Hawk War brought the Native Americans’ tenure to an end. There was a rapid surge in industrialization and by 1860 several industries were established.
However, much later in the 19th century, Illinois witnessed the scene of such labor clashes as the Haymarket square riot of 1886 and the Pullman strike of 1894, when farmers of the state revolted against the increased freight rates and increase in price of the manufactured goods. There was a marked improvement in labor conditions in the 20th century and the state began to prosper again. The discovery of oil in the year 1937 further heightened the industrial scenario of the place and today, Illinois is also known for playing a major role in the advent of the nuclear age.
Geography: Illinois is spread over a total area of 57,918 square miles making it the 25th largest state in the United States. The state is encircled by Wisconsin on the north, Lake Michigan and Indiana on the east, Kentucky on the south, and Iowa and Missouri on the west. The landscape of Illinois can be divided into three major regions; the Central Plains, the Gulf Coastal Plain, and the Shawnee Hills. Some of the popular cities of Illinois are Springfield, Chicago, Carbondale, Joliet, Peoria, Rockford, etc.
The Central Plains, which comprises 90% of the Illinois, stretches from Lake Michigan west and south. It is further divided into three categories; the Driftless Plains, the Till Plains, and the Great Lakes Plain. The Shawnee Hills is characterized by high altitudes and comprises of the southern part of Illinois lying on the south of the Central Plains. The Gulf Coastal spans from the Gulf of Mexico to the southern tip of Illinois and is located between the Mississippi River on the west and the Ohio River on the east. Since it resembles the Nile Delta it is also referred to as “Little Eqypt.”
Charles Mound is the state’s highest point standing at an altitude of 1,235 feet above the sea level. The Mississippi River is its lowest point standing at an altitude of 279 feet above the sea level. The major rivers of the state are Illinois River, Ohio River, and the Mississippi River and the major lakes of the state are Lake Michigan and Rend Lake.
The climate of the state is continental and there are extreme temperature variations in various parts of the state. The average temperature varies from 87.1 degrees Fahrenheit to 9.8 degrees Fahrenheit. The highest temperature was recorded on 14 July 1954 at East St. Louis. It was 117 degrees Fahrenheit. The lowest recorded temperature was recorded on 5 January 1999. It was –36 degrees Fahrenheit. Know more about Illinois Geography
Travel: Illinois has everything for those who love to explore historical buildings, culturally endowed areas, ethnic neighborhoods, theme and amusement parks, museums, etc. Above all, it is an ultimate place for food lovers and for those in search of different varieties of cuisines. Visit to Illinois will be incomplete without a visit to the following places:
- Millennium Park
- The Magnificent Mile
- Shedd Aquarium
- Sky Deck Chicago-Willis Tower
- Shawnee National Forest
- The Art Institute of Chicago
- Navy Pier
- The Field Museum of Natural History
- Grant Park-Buckingham Fountain
- Lake Michigan and Lincoln Park
- Starved Rock State Park
- Chicago River
- Museum of Science and Industry
- Tribune Tower
Last Updated on : June 16, 2016