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Geography of Texas

Texas Geography Features


Texas is a state located in the west south-central United States; it is bordered on the north by Oklahoma and Arkansas; on the east by Arkansas and Louisiana; on the southeast by the Gulf of Mexico; on the southwest by the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, and Chihuahua; and on the west by New Mexico. Galveston, Matagorda, and Padre are the islands of the Gulf of Mexico that belong to the state of Texas.

The major physiographic divisions of the state are the Gulf Coastal Plain in the east and southeast; the North Central Plains, covering most of central Texas; the Great Plains, extending from west-central Texas up into the panhandle; and the mountainous trans-Pecos area in the extreme west. The geographic center of the state is in McCulloch County, fifteen miles northeast of Brady.

Climate of Texas
Owing to the location of the state of Texas at the intersection of multiple climate zones, it has a highly variable weather. Some parts of the state, like the Panhandle, experience harsh winters while the winters in the Gulf Coast are mild. Precipitation patterns also vary across the different divisions of the state.

Most areas of Texas have consistent high temperatures in the summer months in the 32ºC range. The maximum temperature in the mountains of West Texas and on Galveston Island is around 26ºC while the Rio Grande Valley has temperature of 38ºC range.

Thunderstorms, tornadoes and hurricanes are a common feature in the state. Tornadoes generally occur in the months of April, May and June; an average of 139 tornadoes hit the state annually. Hurricanes strike the state once every decade, usually in September and October. Texas has witnessed many devastating hurricanes in the past; the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, Hurricane Audrey of 1957, and Hurricane Carla of 1967. Hurricane Alicia of 1983 and the recent Hurricane Rita of 2005 are the most destructive hurricanes Texas ever witnessed.

Total area268,581 square miles
Land area262,017 square miles
Water area4,790 square miles
Highest pointGuadalupe Peak (2,667meters)
Lowest pointGulf of Mexico
Geographic CenterMcCulloch County

The state of Texas emits the most greenhouse gases in the United States of America.

Mountains of Texas

There are 2, 385 mountain peaks in the state of Texas. Carpenter Mountain, Castle Peak, Cusseta Mountain, El Capiton, Guadalupe Peak, Packsaddle Mountain, Snow Mountain, and Slipdown Mountain are the major mountains found in the state of Texas.

Rivers in Texas

There are 3,700 named streams and fifteen major rivers in the state of Texas. Rio Grande is the largest river 1,896 miles long. Colorado, Pecos, Brazos, Lavaca, Leon, San Antonio, Angelina, Concho and the Red River are the major rivers in Texas.

Lakes in Texas

There are many beautiful lakes in the state of Texas. The Caddo Lake is the largest natural lake of freshwater found in the South of the state spanning an area of almost 27,000 acres. Alvarado Park Lake, Lake Austin, Balmorhea Lake, Beltoon Lake, Lake Bastrop, Lake Casa Blanca, Lake Conroe and the Canton Lake are the principal lakes found in the state of Texas.


Last Updated on: July 6, 2017