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Oregon Geography

by Vishul Malik

Topography The US state of Oregon is located in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is known for its forest cover, and it is the leading producer…


The US state of Oregon is located in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is known for its forest cover, and it is the leading producer of lumber in the country. It is bordered by Washington to the north, California to the south, Nevada to the southeast, Pacific Ocean to the west, and Idaho to the east.

The territory of the state can be divided into six areas:

  • The Coastal Range:

    The Coastal Range stretches from north to south along the Pacific Ocean. This region is forested with evergreens such as spruce, and the average mountaintop rises less than 2,000 feet above sea-level. Various coastal lakes are scattered throughout the range.

  • The Willamette Lowlands:

    The Willamette Lowlands are located along the Willamette River, to the east of Coastal Range. The area is fertile, with mild climate.

  • Cascade Mountains:

    Cascade Mountains are located to the east of the Willamette Lowlands. It is home to the highest peak of the state, Mount Hood. The landscape of the region is rugged and has many lakes. Crater lake (1,932 feet) is the deepest lake.

  • Klamath Mountains:

    Klamath Mountains are located in the southwest corner of Oregon. It is covered by dense forests.

  • Columbia Plateau:

    Columbia Plateau extends from eastern Oregon to Idaho and Washington. It was created by lava flowing from cracks in the earth’s crust. The wheat farm in the country are found here. Much of the terrain of Columbia Plateau is rugged. The Snake River has cut Hells Canyon on the Oregon/Idaho border.

  • Basin and Range Region:

    The Basin and Range Region is located in the southeastern region of Oregon. It is marked by high basins and few steep mountains. Parts of this region are semi-desert.

Oregon is the 9th largest state in United States of America. It has a diverse landscape, including volcanoes, mountains, waterfalls and the Pacific Coastline

Geographical Facts About Oregon

Area 98,386 square miles
Land Area 96,003 square miles
Water Area 2,383 square miles
Highest point Mount Hood (11,239 feet above sea-level)
Lowest point Pacific Ocean
Highest temperature 119 degrees Fahrenheit
Lowest temperature -54 degrees Fahrenheit
Geographic Center Located in Crook County, 25 miles SSE of Prineville

Climate of Oregon

The Pacific Ocean influences the climate of the western part of the state. The climate of the region is mild, but extreme hot and cold weather can affect parts of Oregon.

The high deserts of central and eastern Oregon are dry, while the west part of the state is moist and mild. The highest temperature,119 degrees Fahrenheit, was recorded on August 10, 1898 at Pendleton. The lowest temperature, -54 degrees Fahrenheit, was recorded on February 10, 1933 at Seneca. Rainfall in the state varies widely.


The most prominent mountain peaks of the United States are found in the mountainous regions of western Oregon. These are Mount Hood, Sacajawea Peak, Mount Jefferson and South Sister. There are three major mountain ranges in the state: Cascade Mountains, Klamath Mountains and Blue Mountains.


Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of Northern America. It originates in Canada and flows northwest into the US states of Washington and Oregon. Its drainage basin is as big as the size of France. Other major rivers in the state are Deschutes, Willamette River, John Day River, and Snake River.


Crater Lake is the deepest lake in the United States. It was formed by the collapse of the volcano Mount Mazama. There are no rivers flowing into or out of the lake. Other famous lakes in the state are Upper Klamath Lake, Fish Lake, Burnt Lake, Camp Lake, and Goose Lake.

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