Canada has been inhabited since around 24,500 B.C. Yukon Territory had a fair number of people, but the numbers dwindled after the Europeans started coming into Canada. Many native Americans contracted diseases from the explorers and eventually died.
In 1840, Canada was united, becoming the Province of Canada. Canada's colonial roots are reflected in its status as a Commonwealth of Britain under the crown. The languages spoken in Canada also reflect its early colonial history. Both English and French are spoken in Canada, though French is primarily spoken in the province of Quebec which was under French control for many years.
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If the area is taken into consideration, Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia, and makes up most of northern North America. Canada's territories extend up to the Arctic circle, though most of this land is covered with a thick layer of ice. The Canadian Forces Station Alert is the farthest north settlement in the world, located not far from the North Pole.
To the south, Canada shares the world's longest land border with the United States as well as the world's longest coastline. Alaska, completely separated from the contiguous United States, is located to the north-west of Canada, extending towards Russia. Canada's terrain is mountainous, with the coast mountains and rocky mountains, and dense forests. Canada contains more fresh water than any other country in the world, courtesy its 31,700 lakes.
Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. Parliament consists of 308 members, while the Senate has 105.
It is divided into ten provinces and three additional territories. The territories are under the jurisdiction of the federal government, while the provinces handle their own governments with some level of autonomy. Canadian provinces are grouped into the following regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada.
Last Updated : July 23 ,2015