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Where is Afghanistan ?
Afghanistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia. It shares its borders with Pakistan to the southeast, Iran to west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north, and China to the northeast.
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History of Afghanistan
Afghanistan's earliest inhabitants may have lived over 50,000 years ago. Some of the early known civilizations in the region were the Achaemenid, Macedonian, and Indian Maurya Empires.
The Achaemenid Empire had taken control of the region that includes modern Afghanistan by the 6th century BC, until it was conquered and occupied by Alexander the Great around 330 BC. That occupation was followed by the rule of the Seleucid Empire before it became part of the Maurya Empire in 305 BC. Over the next centuries, thanks in part to Afghanistan's strategic location within Asia, various empires successively took control of the region, including the Parthians, Kushans, and Sassanids. The country had become known as Khorasan by the 4th century CE, and Islam spread to the country in 342, becoming an important center for Islam. However, the Mongols, led by Genghis Khan, invaded in 1219, causing major destruction. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, three kingdoms ruled the region: the Khanate of Bukhara, the Mughals, and the Safavids, who soon dominated most of the region.

In 1709, a revolution led by Mir Wais Hotak overthrew the government and formed the independent Afghan, though the ruling Safavid Persians battled them for control. The Afghan Empire worked toward stability over the next century. They fought British intrusion in Anglo-Afghan Wars in the 1840s to 1870s, with British control of some areas until Afghanistan was declared independent under the Treaty of Rawalpindi in 1919. The country was ruled by a series of kings until in 1973, a coup allowed Daoud Khan to take control of the government as the president.

A few years later, in the Saur Revolution of 1978, the People's Democratic Party arose to take control the government, and a civil war broke out. The United States stepped in to support the mujahideen, and the Soviet Union became involved as well, invading Afghanistan. The war with the Soviets lasted 10 years, withdrawing in 1989, and resulted in many deaths and other destruction. Even after their withdrawal, Afghanistan faced foreign intrusions and soon the rise of the Taliban, who took control of Kabul in 1996. Taliban control of Afghanistan and the September 11 attacks on the United States led to the outbreak of war between the two.

Neighboring Countries
Afghanistan shares borders with Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and China.

Major Cities
  • Kabul (capital)
  • Bamiyan
  • Kunduz
  • Balkh
Afghanistan is located in Central Asia, and is entirely landlocked. Geographic features of Afghanistan include the Hindu Kush and Pamir Mountains, the Himalayas, and Central Highlands, plateau in the southwest, and plains in the north. Afghanistan's highest point is at Noshaq, which stands 7,492 meters (24,580 feet) above sea level in the Hindu Kush Mountains near China. The northern plains include the fertile river valley. Major rivers in Afghanistan include the Kabul, Helmand, Amu Darya, Kunduz, and Arghandab Rivers.

Points of Interest
Afghanistan is a country with a long history and a vibrant culture, with Persian influences as well as influences from many other cultures. However, many regions of Afghanistan remain unsafe for foreign travelers, as they are controlled by rebel forces. The capital, Kabul, was damaged during the recent wars, but is in the process of redevelopment. Some of the sites in Kabul include the Darul Aman Palace, which was King Amanullah's in the 1920s, the Gardens of Babur, which is a scenic destination with a pool, museum, and mosque, and several other museums around the city. There are also a few other parks, including Bagh-e Bala, which includes a former palace, and Bagh-e Zanana, which is for women and children only.

Outside of the capital, other sites include Band-e Amir National Point, in which there are beautiful lakes, and hiking areas including the Panjshir Valley and the Salang Pass. In Bamiyan is located one of the most important destinations in Afghanistan. The Bamiyan Buddha statues were carved into the cliffs of the mountains, though they are in ruins from Taliban destruction.

The main point of entry in Afghanistan is the capital's Kabul International Airport (Khwaja Rawash Airport), which serves destinations around the Middle East and Asia, with many flights to Delhi. There are also airports in the north, like Maulana Jalaluddin Balkhi International, in Kandahar, and Bagram.

There are roads into Afghanistan from Pakistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, though they are currently unsafe for travelers. There are also buses from Pakistan and Iran. In cities, there is some public transportation available, with some buses, minibuses, and taxis.


Last Updated On : June 19, 2014

The official flag of Afghanistan was adopted in 2004. The Afghanistan flag comprises of a vertical tricolor of black, red and green with the national emblem in the center.
Lat Long34.533333, 69.133333
Largest CityKabul
Official LanguageDari (Persian) and P
Major ReligionIslam
Form of GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
PresidentAshraf Ghani
Vice PresidentAbdul Rashid Dostum (first) Sarwar Danish (second)
Prime MinisterAbdullah Abdullah (Chief Executive Officer)
CurrencyAfghani (AFN)
GDP$33.740 billion
Calling code93
Time ZoneD (UTC+4:30)

Target5.5 Million

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