Geography of New Mexico

New Mexico is the fifth-largest state in the United States covering an area of 121,589 square miles. It is considered one of the Mountain States.
General Features

New Mexico is a state located in the southwest and western regions of the United States. It is bordered by Colorado on the north; by Oklahoma and Texas on the east; by Texas and the Mexican state of Chihuahua on the south; and it borders Arizona on the west. The geographic center of the state is in Torrance County.

The landscape of New Mexico comprises four land regions:
  • Great Plains: The region extending from a high plateau in the north to south across the Pecos River is referred to as the Great Plains. The region is used for cattle ranches.

  • High Plains: The area along the eastern edge of the state, south of the Canadian River is known as the High Plains. The region is also known as the Staked Plains.

  • Rocky Mountains: The central part of New Mexico is covered by the Rocky Mountains. These extend from New Mexico to Colorado. The highest mountain peak in the state, Wheeler Peak, is found in this range.

  • The Basin and Range Region: Lying to the south of the Rocky Mountains, the Basin and Range Region covers about one-third of the state. This area consists of rugged mountain ranges. The important mountain peaks in the area include the Guadalupe, Mogollon, Organ, Sacramento, and San Andres mountain ranges.

Geographical Facts About New Mexico

Area121,598 square miles
Land Area121,365 square miles
Water Area234 square miles
Mean Elevation1,735 meters
Highest PointWheeler Peak (4013.3 meters)
Lowest PointRed Bluff Reservoir (865 meters)
Geographic CenterTorrence County

Climate of New Mexico

New Mexico usually has a semi-arid and arid climate. The climate varies in different locations of the state. The mountainous regions, high plains, and deserts in the state have alpine and continental climate. The highest temperature recorded in New Mexico was 50 °C, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on June 27, 1994. The lowest temperature recorded in the state was '46 °C; it was registered at Gavilan on February 1, 1951. There is occasional snowfall in the state as well.


New Mexico has many high mountain peaks. Wheeler Peak is the highest peak in the state followed by Mount Walter, Old Mike Peak, and Middle Truchas Peak.

The other major mountains in the state are:
  • Truchas Peak
  • Venado Peak
  • Penitente Peak
  • Tesuque Peak
  • Larkspur Peak
  • Sierre Blanca
  • Pinabete Peak
  • Baldy Mountain
  • Mount Phillips
The major rivers in New Hampshire are:
  • Rio Grande River
  • Pecos River
  • Canadian River
  • San Juan River
  • Gila River
  • Vermejo River
  • Beaver River
  • Jemez River
  • Red River

There are many natural and artificial lakes and reservoirs in New Hampshire.

The major lakes in the state are:
  • Ute reservoir
  • Vermejo Reservoir
  • Elephant Butte Reservoir
  • Conchas Lake
  • Navajo Reservoir
  • Caballo Reservoir
  • Sumner Lake
Last Updated on: August 28th, 2017