According to historical evidences and archaeological excavations, Greece history commences with the Stone Age Civilization. Settlements in Greece began from The Palaeolithic Age that covers between 11.000 BC to 3.000 BC. Thereafter, the civilizations of Greece began to acquire more complex structure with the formation of larger villages and new forms of social organisation.
Approximately during 3.000 BC, the art of metal work emerged in Greece and this marked the beginning of The Bronze Age. The second millennium B.C saw the birth of some glorious Greek civilizations like Minoan Civilization on Crete Islands, the Mycenean Civilization on the Mainland with the Cycladic Civilization flourishing on the island of Centre Aegean.
During the 12th century BC, the Dorians descending from the North, massacred the Mycenean people, disintegrating the entire control system. With this began The Dark Age and The Bronze Age civilizations came to an abrupt end. From about 1000 BC, the Greeks again started to reconstruct their civilizations and this marked the beginning of the Archaic Period.
The Classical Period that followed the Archaic Period is unanimously considered to be the Golden Age of Greece history. This period is particularly remembered as the time when some of best mathematicians and philosophers of Greece lived. It was also during The Classical Period that democracy as a form of government came into being.
After The Classical period, Greek history primarily revolves around numerous conquests and dominations. During the Hellenistic Period that extended between 404 to 146 BC, Alexander the Great emerged as the king. Another important era in the history of Greece is the Roman Period that followed the Hellenistic Period marked by expansionist strategies of the Romans. When the Carthagians supported by the Greeks lost against the Romans, Greece began to be gradually conquered by the Roman Empire. The period between 31 BC to 180 AD, when Greece was under the control of Roman Empire is termed as the period of the Pax Romana. The following Byzantine Period was also a critical epoch in the history of Greece. With the beginning of the 3rd century, Pax Romana was in danger of violation as Greece came to be conquered by tribes such as the Goths, the Heruli and the Franks. Christianity gradually emerged as the religions of the Empire.
The Byzantine Empire ended with the invasion of the Turks followed by the Ottoman era that continued for four hundred years. The war for independence against Turkish oppression began in 1821 and ended with the setting up of independent Greek State.
Ottoman Era in Greece
Greece was the territory of Ottoman Empire until its independence in 1821. The decline of the capital of Byzantine Era in 1453, witness the emergence of Ottoman Era in Greece. Greece came under the control of Ottoman Empire when Constantinople became a part of the empire and was renamed Istanbul. Most of peninsular Greece was already under the control of Ottoman empire.
In 1517, after the conquest of Ottoman empire in Greece, it was divided into four districts, which were attached to Damascus province and was ruled from Istanbul.
The rule of Ottoman Empire at Greece was grasping and oppressive though they adopted religious tolerance. At the outset of the Ottoman era in Greece, Jewish families continued to dwell in the region especially Jerusalem, Hebron, Gaza, Nablus, Safad and so on.
Roman Era in Greece
Roman Era in Greece commenced from 31 B.C. to 180 AD is also termed as the era of the Pax Romana. This implies a Roman Peace treaty between Rome and the central nations of Greece and the Eastern Greek.
This period ensured the advent of peace and security in Greece which in turn opened the prospering way of economical and cultural progress, especially in the places of recognition like Athens, Thessaloniki, Corinth, Miletus, Alexandria and Smyrna. Roman provincial administration was disintegrated thus evolved the urban Greek elite class who had the right to enter the Roman Senate.
The Romans open heartedly greeted the Greek culture and then Latin and Greek became the major languages of the State. Thus the birth of Greco-Roman Empire was recorded in the history of Greece.
Byzantine Era in Greece
Byzantine Era in Greece bear testimony to a glorious period. The history of Byzantine Era began with the establishment of Constantinople around 330. The ancient Roman Empire crumbled due to internal conflict and barbarian invasions, which paved the way for the Byzantine Era in Greece.
Constantine the Great after defeating Licinius and reuniting Roman Empire searched for a site that could be a center of new Roman Empire centered around Christian faith.
Emperor Constantine chose Constantinople as the capital of Byzantine Empire in Greece. The site was a perfect spot for establishment of Byzantine Era in Greece because it was the natural link to the eastern regions of the empire and it also offers formidable defense against the Persians of the east.
Modern Era in Greece
Modern Era in Greece was under the rule of Ottoman empire till 19th century. The great war of Greek independence provide the people of Greece the long cherished freedom. Following the Geek independence Ioannis Kapodistries became the prime minister of the country.
But the republic state again turned into a monarchy with the intervention of European powers. The Balkan wars in 1912 to1913 witnessed the annexation of southern Macedonia, Epirus, Crete and the Aegean Islands in Greece. In the course of World War I in Greece, the country sided with entente, which proved to be a profitable step.
At the end of the war Greece was provided some major parts of Asia Minor. But Turkish nationalist led by Mustafa Kemal Atatark planned a military attack and defeated Greeks. The Greco-Turkish War of 1919-1922 witness population exchange that resulted into the inhibition of thousands of Muslims in the country.