US States Map > Map of Maryland > Geography of Maryland

Geography of Maryland

by Vishul Malik

Due to the variety of topography, Maryland is also called "America in Miniature". The Chesapeake bay divides the state into two portions, which are known as East and West Shores.

Geographical Facts About Maryland


Area 12,407 square miles
Land Area 9,775 square miles
Water Area 2,633 square miles
Highest point Hoye-Crest, Backbone mountain, 3,360 feet above sea level
Lowest point Atlantic Ocean
Highest temperature 109 Fahrenheit
Lowest temperature -40 degrees Fahrenheit
Geographic Center Located in Prince Georges County

General Features

The US state of Maryland is located in the Mid Atlantic region. It is bordered by Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to the south and west, Pennsylvania to its north, and Delaware to the east.It is divided into two sections by the Bay of Chesapeake. The section on the east of Chesapeake Bay is referred to as the East Shore, while the land on the west of Chesapeake Bay is known as the west shore.

The state can be divided into the following regions:

  • Appalachian Plateau : Appalachian Plateau lies to the west of the Blue Ridge. It occupies the westernmost portion of Maryland, and is covered by Allegheny Mountains. It is home to the highest point in the state.Appalachian Ridge and Valley: Appalachian Ridge and Valley is the northern region of the state that separates West Virginia from Pennsylvania. The eastern part of this region is characterized by orchards and farmland, and is dominated by the Great Valley.
  • Blue Ridge Region : Blue Ridge lies to the west of Piedmont and extends from southern Pennsylvania to northern Georgia. It is a narrow, mountainous section between Piedmont and the Appalachian Ridge and Valley. South Mountain and Catoctin Mountain are in this region.
  • Piedmont : Piedmont in the state extends from the northeast through central Maryland. It is characterized by fertile valleys. The Dug Hill Ridge and Pars Ridge run in a southwesterly direction through the state. Rivers and streams to the east of Piedmont flow into the Chesapeake Bay.Atlantic Coastal Plain: Atlantic Coastal Plain stretches from New Jersey to Florida and covers the East shore and some area of the West Shore of Maryland. The topography of the plain is characterized by flat and low rising plains. Marshy areas can be found on the East Shore while the West Shore is used for farming.

Climate of Maryland

The climate of Maryland varies widely due to different elevations and proximity to water. The eastern half of the state has humid-subtropical climate with hot and humid summers. The extreme western part of the state lies in the subtropical highland zone because of the elevation. Rainfall is characteristics of the east coast and the annual precipitation varies from 35 to 45 inches. The annual snowfall varies from 9 inches to over 100 inches. Maryland is also prone to tropical cyclones due to its location near Atlantic Coast.


The US state of Maryland has many mountain ranges.

Some of the notable mountains in this area are:

  • Backbone Mountain
  • Dans Mountain
  • Polish Mountain
  • Martin Mountain
  • Collier Mountain
  • Lambs Knoll


Prominent rivers in the Maryland are: Patapsco River, Patuxent River, Potomac River, and Susquehanna River.


Notable lakes in Maryland are: Deep Creek Lake, Lake Oakland, Loch Raven Reservoir, and Prettyboy Reservoir.

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