History of Hungary
The state of Hungary was formed in the late 9th century through the tribal unification leadership of Hungarian grand prince Arpad. His great grandson, Stephen I, converted the region into a Christian kingdom in 1000 AD.
In 1241, the Mongols attacked the region, ending with the deaths or slavery of about half of the nation's population. King Bela IV ordered the building of massive stone castles to stop the attacks. When the Mongols finally did attack for the 2nd time in 1286, they weren't able to intercept the region due to the hundreds of stone castles and fortifications, as well as Hungary's new tactics.
In 1526, the Ottoman Empire invaded Hungary, which led to the nation's division in 1541, dividing the land into 3 parts: the Hungarian Kingdom, the Turkish dominion, and the Habsburg dominion. It took Hungary 150 years to reunite and regain the region from the Turks in 1699.
After the Ottoman Empire was ousted, the region came under the influence of the Habsburg rule. In 1711, the Treaty of Peace at Szatmar gave Hungary partial independence. It was in 1848 that revolutions for independence started to begin in Europe, with Hungary included. By 1867, Hungary joined the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which lasted until World War I in 1918.
In 1920, after the War, Hungary became an independent nation, where today's current borders were ratified through the Treaty of Trianon. During World War 2, Hungary joined the Axis Powers, and became an influence of the Soviet Union from 1947 to 1989 under a communist dictatorship.
Revolutions led to Hungary's independence, finally becoming a democratic parliamentary republic on October 23, 1989.
Hungary is a landlocked region located in Central Europe. Its borders are: Slovakia in the north, Romania and Ukraine in the east, Austria to the west, Serbia and Croatia to the south, and Slovenia to its southwest.
There are 2 major rivers that run through the country, which are the Danube and the Tisza.
Hungary is comprised of 3 geographical regions, namely: the Great Alfold in the eastern portion of the Danube; the Transdanubia in the hilly regions in the western section of the Danube; and the mountainous and hilly region of the North Hungarian Mountains.
Hungary is a unicameral parliamentary representative democratic republic. It has 2 leaders: the President as Head of State, and the Prime Minister as Head of Government.
The President is elected by the National Assembly, which comprise the members of the parliament. The President's duties are highly ceremonial, such as receiving foreign heads of states in Hungary. He is also Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces.
The Prime Minister is also elected by the National Assembly and duties include selecting the cabinet ministers.
Hungary is one of the most visited countries in Europe and even the world. In 2013, the total number of tourists was 10.6 million. The peak months are July and August.
Budapest is the most visited city in Hungary, which is also the country's capital. Among the most famous tourist attractions are the Buda Castle, which is home to several museums; the Medieval Castle District; and a wide number of monuments and recreational offerings such as 3 opera houses and thermal baths.
Gyor is the country's 6th largest city and is the most important in the northwestern region. It is home to plenty of charming cafes, shops, night clubs, and restaurants, as well as its impressive historic buildings such as the Baroque city center.
Kecskemet is famous for its thriving music scene, as well as its well-preserved Art Nouveau architecture.
Lake Balaton is the 2nd most important tourist destination in Hungary. It is the largest thermal water lake in Europe, and home to several hotels and spa retreats. Tourists can hike and trek the National Park, sail across the lake, swim in shallow waters, or take a cruise. About 2.5 million visitors spend their vacation at Lake Balaton every year.
Adult literacy rate in Hungary is at 99%. Education is free and compulsory from age 5 to 18 years. The country's higher education has a dual system, where colleges offer undergraduate programs while the universities offer graduate degrees.
Higher education and training in Hungary are among the best in the world, ranked as 44th place out of 148 countries in the 2013/2014 Global Competitiveness Report.
Hungary is famous for its mathematics education, where numerous outstanding scientists are products of the country's education system. A total of 13 Hungarian scientists have won the Nobel Prize.
- The Rubik's cube, the ballpoint pen, and the first ever artificial Vitamin were invented in Hungary.
- Hungary ranks at 8th place for the country with the most Olympic medals.
- Hungary is home to the largest natural grassland in Europe, which is the Hortobagy National Park; the largest thermal lake in Central Europe; and the largest thermal water cave system in the continent.
source Code: IW20141110
Last Updated On : November 10, 2014