Palestine is a state that was proclaimed in exile in Algiers on 15 November 1988, when the Palestine Liberation Organization’s (PLO) National Council (PNC) adopted the unilateral Palestinian Declaration of Independence.
Location – Palestine is located on the east coast of Mediterranean Sea, located to the west of Jordan and south of Lebanon. The territory of Palestine covers almost 10,435 sq miles which includes 10,163 sq miles of land area and the rest consists of water. The Dead Sea, Huleh Lake, Tiberia Lake are the main water bodies. The diverse topography consists of coastal and inner plains, the mountains and hills and the southern desert. The geographical coordinates of the location of Palestine are 32° North latitude and 35° 15″ East longitude.
Geography – The geography of Palestine is characterized by its diverse topography and terrain. The climate of Palestine in general is pleasant. The winter months from mid December to mid March are severe. The cool Mediterranean Sea breeze has a cooling effect on the very hot summers.
Rivers flowing through in Palestine
There are many Rivers of Palestine. The Rivers of Palestine are used by the people for various purposes in Palestine. Some rivers are used for drinking water some are used for irrigation and many other purposes.
The main rivers at Palestine are as follows are as follows:
- Jordan River
- The Kanah
- The Cherith
- The Besore
- The Geena
- The Shichor-Libnath
- The Kishon
– The history of Palestine has also been full of turmoil and change. The formation of Palestine Liberation Army was a significant event in shaping the country’s history. This army was set up with the sole mission of fighting Israelis. The Palestine Liberation Army was controlled by several ruling governments. Today the members serving this army have become an integral part of Palestinian Authority’s National Guard.
Demographics – The population of Palestine can be marked as a mixed population. The population has always been debatable and controversial. The Palestine population is generally dominated by two ethnic group namely the Jews and the Arabs. The population of Palestine has played a major role in shaping the events and policies of the country. Population of Palestine has always been debatable and controversial. There was basically lack of authentic figures and ample confusion prevailed over the census figures.
Economy – Telephones, cellular and internet is various modes of Palestinian communication system. Cellular is one of the most popular modes of communication in Palestine. The network is excellent. With restructuring, and emergence of new Palestine, jobs in Palestine are lucrative and offer the best remuneration The most popular jobs of Palestine are found in the management, sales and marketing operation, and medical sector. Financial sector also provide ample opportunities.
The Jaffa, Haifa and the Gaza ports are three important Palestine ports which are important for country’s economy. The port of Jaffa is one of the oldest and the most beautiful ports in Palestine. The magnificent port of Haifa is known as the gateway of Middle East. The government has pumped in a lot of money for the rapid development of this port and this port is an important trade route for import and export of goods.
Government and Politics
Government: Parliamentary democracy
President/Chairman of Executive Committee: Mahmoud Abbas
Speaker of Parliament: Salim Zanoun
Legislature: National Council
The Palestine government and politics works within the framework of the rules and regulations as laid down in the Constitution of Palestine. The Constitution came into existence in 1968. In 2001 the first draft of this constitution was published. Dr. Nabeel Ali Shaath is the Chairman of the Committee of the Palestine Constitution.
The current President of the government of Palestine is Mahmoud Abbas. Haniyeh’s government was removed by President Mahmoud Abbas on 14th June, 2007. He has been replaced by Fayyad who runs an emergency government in Palestine. However Haniyeh exercises his authority in the Gaza strip while Fayyad does the same in the West Bank. The cabinet of Palestine is thus an emergency cabinet.
The legislature of Palestine which is known as the Palestinian Legislative Council is unicameral in nature with 132 members. Half of the members are elected on the basis of proportional representation and the rest half are elected by traditional constituencies. The Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council is Abdel Aziz Duwaik.
The various political parties that play an important role in the politics of Palestine are as follows:
- Palestine Liberation Organization: This came in into existence in the year of 1964 under the efforts of Ahmed Shukhairy. PLO was also able to gain the UN observer status in course of time. After the Oslo agreements, the PLO became the Palestine National Authority (PNA). It has three sub-divisions: PNC, Palestine Central Council and PLO Executive Committee.
- FATAH: This political party at Palestine was formed under the efforts made by Yasser Arafat, Khalid al-Hassan, Khalil Al Wazir, Farouq Kadumi and other Palestinian refugees of Kuwait. This party has got 3 major sub-divisions. They are the General Conference, the Fatah Revolutionary Council and the Central Committee.
- Palestinian People’s Party: This party came into the scenario in the year of 1919. This is a major supporter of Oslo.
- Palestinian Democratic Union: This is a reformist party of Palestine and came into existence due to a split within DFLP with Yasir’s formation of Fida. Some of the leaders of this party are Zahira Kamal, Mahmud Nawfal and Salih Salih.
Science and Technology in Palestine
Science and Technology has contributed immensely in the development of the country. The Government has taken special initiatives to develop science and technology in Palestine. It has established various institutions like the Palestine Academy for Science and Technology and Palestinian Astronomical Society that are involved in the promotion of science throughout the territory. There are 11 universities and 20 community colleges in Palestine that fulfill the educational requirements of 3.4 million inhabitants of Palestine. Out of 106,000 students in the country 22,000 students are engaged in the study of science and technology.
Some of the other institutes of Palestine are the University of Al-Quds with its Applied Research Institute of Jerusalem, which emphasizes on agricultural research; the An-Najah University known for its Center for Renewable Energy Research; and the University of Birzeit that is famous for its Community Health Unit which carries researches on various health policies of the country.