Cameroon is a country located in west Africa bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria, The country Cameroon covers a total area of 183,568 square miles.
The country exhibits almost all the major climates and vegetation of the continent including mountains, deserts, rain forests, savanna grasslands, and coastal areas. Being home to such a varied climate, Cameroon is sometimes described as “Africa in miniature”.
The topography of Cameroon is divided into four geographical regions: coastal plain in south-west, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, and plains in the north.
The coastal plain of Cameroon extend an approximate fifteen miles inland from the Gulf of Guinea (part of the Atlantic Ocean) to the edge of a plateau. The plains consist of a dense forest cover; the areas of Central African mangroves especially around Douala are completely covered by forests. The low South Cameroon Plateau that rise from the coastal plain are characterized by tropical rain forest. The weather is less humid than in the coastal plains. The western region of Cameroon comprises an irregular chain of mountains, hills, and plateaus that extend from Mount Cameroon almost to Lake Chad at the northern tip of the country. The region is home to some of the country’s most fertile soils, notably around volcanic Mt. Cameroon.
The land rises gradually northward to the grassy, rugged Adamaoua (Adamawa) highlands from the forested southern plateau. The Adamaoua is at an elevation of 1,036 meters and forms a barrier between the north and south.
The northern savanna plain extends from the edge of the Adamaoua to Lake Chad. Owing to scanty rainfall, the region consists of grass and scrub areas. The Cameroon Soil and Geology are influenced by the presence of igneous rock, which is a result of natural phenomena like volcanism and earthquake. Other than the igneous rock, metamorphic rock are also visible in Cameroon. It is composed of igneous and metamorphic rock overlaid in places by sedimentary rock. Cameroon Geology and Soil are also influenced by the incident of continental drift. This is the reason that the stratigraphy of Cameroon matches the Stratigraphy of South Africa. Mount Cameroon is the highest point of Cameroon. It falls under a volcanic chain and is an example of fault mountain underlined by slope raptures. The basal complex of Cameroon is composed of west African craton which consist of Phanerozoic sediment. Cameroon Geology also bears the evidence of Palaeoglaciation. Due to its proximity with desert ancient loess deposit is evident. The coastline of Cameroon is subjected to submergence and emergence. Soil of Cameroon is very losse, friable and structure less near the desert. On the other hand alluvial soil is evident in the riverine plain. The soil influenced by the desert climate and the coastal exposure tend to be saline in nature.
The country has many rivers winding throughout the many regions. The major rivers include Wouri, Sanaga, Nyong, Ntem, Dja, Kadei, Benoue the and Logone River.