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The earliest inhabitants of Moldova included the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, who lived in the region dating back to around 5000 BC. Dacian tribes later populated the region, as well as the Scythians, Sarmatians, and other civilizations. The region was conquered by the Roman Empire around the 1st century AD, and later became the Byzantine Empire when the Roman Empire was divided. Various peoples invaded the region of modern-day Moldova, including Goths and Huns, Magyars, and Mongols.

Moldova became part of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires, lasting throughout the Middle Ages. In 1359, the Principality of Moldavia was founded, stretching across the region between the Carpathian mountains and the Dniester River, and down to the Black Sea. After invasions by the Tatars and Turks, the Ottoman Empire claimed the principality as a vassal, but allowed it to remain self-governing.

The Russian Empire annexed the eastern portion of the Principality of Moldavia, which the Ottoman Empire ceded in the 1812 Treaty of Bucharest after the Russo-Turkish War. The Russians called this territory Bessarabia. In 1878, Romania became independent from the Ottoman Empire, and its territory included the former western Moldavia. After the Russian Revolution, Bessarabians formed the Moldavian Democratic Republic, which declared independence in 1918 in a union with Romania, but was not recognized. In 1939, Romania gave up Bessarabia to the USSR, and in 1940, formed the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Moldova became independent in 1991.

Neighboring Countries
Moldova borders Romania and Ukraine.

Major Cities Geography
Moldova is a landlocked country located in southeastern Europe. The terrain of Moldova includes a hilly plateau, forest steppes, and plains. The Moldavian Plateau is part of the Carpathian Mountain range. Highlands in Moldova include the northern Dniester Ridge, the Central Moldavian Plateau, and the Podolian Plateau. The highest point in Moldova is Balanesti Hill, which measures about 1,410 feet (429 meters) above sea level, and is located in the Central Moldavian Plateau.

Though Moldova is landlocked, it is only a short distance from the Black Sea, which is blocked by part of Ukraine's territory. The main rivers in Moldova are the Dniester and the Prut (a tributary of the Danube), which form parts of the eastern and western borders of the country, respectively.

Points of Interest
Moldova's capital, Chisinau, is home to many attractions, like the city's Central Park, where the Nativity Cathedral and the Triumph arch can be found. The park features a large flower market, which offers good photo ops, as does the botanical garden, not far from the gates of the city. Other features of the capital are several museums, including a fine art museum, archaeological museum, and the Pushkin Museum. Monuments in Chisinau include the Stefan Cel Mare (Stephen III) monument and the World War II memorial park. Visitors can find handicrafts and other local wares at the Chisinau Souvenir Bazaar. Balti, another city in Moldova, features parks, the Orthodox Saint Nicolas Church, a local theater, and local culture.

The region of Transnistria is an interesting part of Moldova, as it has declared independence from the rest of the country, but is not a recognized independent state. Travel directly into Transnistria from Ukraine can cause difficulties, as visitors pass through the region's border control instead of Moldova's. Without an official entry stamp for Moldova, leaving the country becomes an issue. Nonetheless, the capital city of Tiraspol provides interesting Soviet architecture and monuments from the region's history.

The main airport in Moldova is Chisinau International in the capital, which offers service to cities all around Europe. Train is a viable method of transportation that is comfortable and less expensive than air travel, though it takes much longer. Rail service is available from destinations in both Romania and Ukraine.

Chisinau is Moldova's transportation hub, and trains, buses, and minibuses from the capital are frequent and inexpensive. Minibuses offer fast and frequent service, but they can be crowded and feel less safe compared to regular buses. Roads within Moldova are often in disrepair, and driving can be dangerous, but major roads are typically maintained. Taxis can be found in and around the capital. Buses frequently travel between Chisinau and several cities in Ukraine, Romania, and Russia including Kiev, Odessa, and Moscow.


Last Updated on : June 11,2020

The official flag of Moldova was adopted on 27th April 1990. Moldova Flag is a tricolor with vertical stripes of blue, yellow and red and Coat of Arms of Moldova on the yellow band at the centre.
Lat Long47 00 N, 29 00 E
Area13,067 Sq Miles (33,846 km2)
Population3,546,847 (July 2015 est.)
Largest CityChisinau
Official LanguagesMoldovan
Major ReligionOrthodox 93.3%, Baptist 1%, other Christian 1.2%, other 0.9%, atheist 0.4%, none 1%, unspecified 2.2% (2004 est.)
National Day27 August (1991)
Form of GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
PresidentIgor Dodon
Prime MinisterPavel Filip
CurrencyMoldovan leu (MDL)
GDP$17.693 billion ( 2015 estimate)
Calling Code373
Time ZoneEET (UTC+2) Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Major Cities in Moldova