The study of the geography of Saudi Arabia
is important in understanding a wide range of the related issues regarding this country, including factors like weather changes,
the flora and fauna as well as the culture. This Arabian country, occupying 2,240,000 square kilometers of the Arabian Peninsula is the largest among all Arabian countries. It is surrounded largely by land areas occupied by neighboring countries, except parts of its western and eastern coasts, where water bodies border Saudi Arabia. These water bodies include 560 kilometers of Arabian Gulf coast and 1700 kilometers of Red Sea to the west. The geographical coordinates of Saudi Arabia correspond to 25 00 North and 45 00 East.
The neighboring countries of Saudi Arabia include eight countries including:
- Sultanate of Oman
- The Republic of Yemen
- United Arab Emirates
There are rugged mountains, plateaus, plains and deserts in Saudi Arabia. The topographical divide of Saudi Arabia distinguishes the landmass to seven different regions. These are:
- The Empty Quarter (Al-Rub Al Khali) desert.
- The Western highlands.
- The Northern Mountains and plateaus.
- Widespread Mountain and desert valleys.
- The Eastern plateaus and plains.
- The "Najd" plateaus, Central Region.
- The "Tihama" plains, South West region.
The landmass of Saudi Arabia, as well as the entire Arabian Peninsula is basically the result of massive geologic movements in the Middle East part of Asia. The crystalline rock structure developed roughly around the time of the development of the Alp mountain range.