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Mongolia National Day

by Vishal Kumar

When is the National Day of Mongolia celebrated? Mongolia celebrates its independence on two days-July 11 and November 26. On July 11 the Mongolian people commemorate the freedom from the…

When is the National Day of Mongolia celebrated?

Mongolia celebrates its independence on two days-July 11 and November 26. On July 11 the Mongolian people commemorate the freedom from the Chinese rule in 1921, and November 26 commemorates the creation of Mongolia’s first constitution in 1924, which led to the establishment of People’s Republic of Mongolia. The elimination of Chinese dominance is celebrated as the Naadam Festival from July 11 – 13 each year.

How are the Mongolian National Days celebrated?

July 11 is is a national holiday and marks the start of the Naadam, typically a three-day long festival. It is held primarily in the Naadam Stadium located in the city of Ulaan Baatar. The festival begins with a vibrant ceremony at Sukhbaatar Square, and is followed by a parade set to the traditional Mongolian music.

A number of sporting events are held. The wrestling, archery, and horse-riding competitions are much awaited and bring the victors much fame.. While wrestling and archery are held in the Naadam Stadium, the horse riding takes place in Yarmag village. Sporting events are held on a national level and at a regional level as well. Traditional Mongolian food such as khuushuur – the deep fried meat dumplings – is served all over the country and food form an integral part of the celebrations.

November 26 is also a national holiday in Mongolia, and is often marked by speeches and tribute to the founder of the nation, Chinggis Khan, by the top government officials. Traditional music, dance, and ceremonial events (hand to hand combating, rifle fighting) displaying military valor commemorate this day.

Why is the historic significance of the Mongolian National Days?

Mongolian empire appeared on the face of world map in 1206 AD under the leadership of Chinggis Khan, who founded the country by uniting various tribal groups. The years that followed saw the rise of Mongolian empire in Asia and Russia, with Chinggis Khan’s grandson Kublai Khan, establishing Yuan dynasty in China.

In 1691 the Manchu tribes who founded the Qing dynasty in China gained control over Mongolia and during the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911 Mongolia declared its independence.

The Chinese did not recognize its independence until 1921, when Mongolia declared victory over China with Russian support. Fearing Chinese domination, Russia quickly instated an independent communist government in Mongolia. Today, Naadam festival marks this historic moment. The Independence Day of Mongolia marks the occasion of creation of its first constitution in 1924, which led to the establishment of Mongolian People’s Republic.

November 26 continues to be celebrated as Mongolia’s Independence Day even though in 1992 a new constitution, and multi-party system was adopted, and the term People’s Republic was dropped from its official name.

What does the Mongolian national flag represent?

The Mongolian national flag was adopted in January 1992, and it was first hoisted in February 1992. The flag is emblem of Mongolian sovereignty, and it comprises of three vertical bands-red, blue, red. The red band on the hoist side features the yellow ensign – Soyombo, which is Mongolian national emblem.

The blue color forms the center band of the flag. It symbolizes the eternal blue sky, and the Mongolian spirit to flourish in bleak circumstances, respectively. The columnar array of the Soyombo epitomizes numerous meanings. Beginning at the top, the star represents the socialist revolution; the fire symbol just below it epitomizes rejuvenation and progression or evolution, and the three branches of the flame capture the past, present and future.The sun and moon denote the sky, and the two triangles signifying an arrow and spear are pointed downward to indicate defeat or death for the enemy. The two horizontal rectangles symbolize the virtues of fairness and honesty, and the Yin Yang symbol between these two rectangles symbolizes fishes in Mongolian culture. It is believed that fishes never close their eyes, and thus signify wisdom and reason. This also represents harmony. The two vertical rectangles enclosing the Soyombo represent the strength and firmness of the Mongolian people.

Who wrote the national anthem of Mongolia?

The music of the Mongolian National Anthem was composed by Bilegiin Damdinsuren and Luvsanjambyn Mordorj, and the song itself was written by Tsendiin Damdinsuren.

Mongolia has seen many changes in its national anthem over the years. Its current national anthem has been in place since 1950, but its lyrics were altered after Mongolia made a transition to democracy in 1990, primarily to remove the passages eulogizing the communist heroes. In July 2006, the Mongolian government revised the lyrics again to honor Chinggis Khan.

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