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What countries contribute to the international student mobility? - Answers

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What countries contribute to the international student mobility?

Countries with highest international student mobility

International student mobility  has become a major component of the global  tertiary education landscape. Accounting for over 4.1 million international mobile students in 2013, the six major countries for inbound international student mobility are United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, France, Germany and Russia. While there are overlapping definitions of ‘international students’,  UNESCO  defines  them as an international mobile student to be an individual who has physically crossed an international border between two countries, with the objective to participate in educational activities in a destination country, where the destination country is different from his or her country of origin. This includes the  foreign students, that include visa-holding international students and other non-citizens holding permanent citizenship. It also differs than the exchange students, who remain enrolled in their home country, while receiving a small number of credits from foreign institutions.

The era of globalization is witnessing knowledge as a commodity that moves between countries. The worldwide evolution of education marketing is the direct result of these trends of globalization. However, changing patterns in tertiary education has affected the pathways of international student mobility. This was encouraged since international students brought cultural interaction and international diversity. Hence, this type of international migration is considered favorable by all nations.

An examination of the economic trends reveals, that the economies with a high  Gross National Income  per capita, are the ones driving growth in the outbound student mobility. Countries like  China and India, are the world’s two most promising market with the highest outbound international student mobility. Additionally, China is also an emerging hub absorbing the high mobility rates of international students. According to the MoE statement of the nation, the total number of Chinese students who finished their studies abroad and retuned home was 80%.

On the other hand, countries like  United States, the United Kingdom and Australia, have absorbed the inbound international student mobility, with approximately 45% of the total foreign students studying in these destination countries. These  English-speaking  countries have managed to establish a diversified market with strong growth potential including world-class facilities, financial incentives, amendments to immigration requirements and procedures. These benefits are done with the sound awareness of the contributions made by the students to the host nation economies.

The countries have also adopted innovative strategies to meet the growing number of players in the international market. On the supply end, the factors like geographic proximity and cultural affinities, play a major determinant in deciding the host nation. A strong consumer demand and partnerships with the government and foreign universities are currently the prime drivers of the international enrolment growth, whereas tighter government regulations hinder the mobility.

There is evidence that the international student mobility is ever-evolving. The marketing of higher education is also a cause of this change in trend, with globalization being the main stimulus.

Below lying table mentions the countries with the highest outbound international student mobility:

Country Internationally mobile tertiary students no. (2017)
China 847,259
India 278,383
Germany 117,921
South Korea 108,608
Nigeria 95,619
France 90,708
Kazakhstan 89,660
Saudi Arabia 85,277
Ukraine 76,181
Vietnam 70,328
United States of America 68,580
Italy 62,180
Malaysia 61,655
Bangladesh 60,390
Russia 56,915
Pakistan 51,894
Iran 51,082
Canada 50,506
Turkmenistan 47,878
Indonesia 46,232
Morocco 45,986
Turkey 45,331
Nepal 44,255
Brazil 43,438
Azerbaijan 41,762
Syria 41,642
Greece 37,484
Hong Kong 37,007
Spain 35,348
Romania 33,235
United Kingdom 33,109
Iraq 32,638
Slovakia 32,427
Uzbekistan 32,245
Japan 30,850
Mexico 30,646
Thailand 29,768
Egypt 29,455
Colombia 28,761
Afghanistan 27,866
Palestine 27,641
Belarus 25,701
Yemen 25,234
Cyprus 25,158
Singapore 25,057
Cameroon 24,972
Bulgaria 24,687
Albania 24,543
Jordan 24,202
Poland 24,135
Kuwait 20,997
Algeria 20,713
Tajikistan 20,623
Moldova 20,276
Tunisia 19,451
Norway 19,035
Sri Lanka 18,521
Sweden 17,567
Austria 17,501
Zimbabwe 17,431
Philippines 16,308
Ecuador 16,241
Venezuela 15,907
Peru 15,587
Netherlands 15,538
Lebanon 15,510
Oman 15,421
Ireland 15,249
Serbia 14,692
Israel 14,296
Kenya 14,017
Belgium 13,588
Czechia 13,360
Sudan 13,122
Switzerland 12,951
Angola 12,634
Ghana 12,399
Portugal 12,335
Australia 12,330
Senegal 12,302
Libya 12,193
Bosnia and Herzegovina 12,018
Côte d’Ivoire 11,517
Kyrgyzstan 11,357
United Arab Emirates 11,249
Hungary 11,130
Lithuania 11,126
Luxembourg 10,087
Mongolia 9,874
Haiti 9,852
Congo 9,849
Finland 9,616
Bolivia 9,448
Chile 9,372
Democratic Republic of the Congo 9,312
Georgia 9,084
Croatia 8,950
Guinea 8,409
Mali 8,369
Argentina 8,082
Armenia 7,906
Myanmar 7,582
South Africa 7,544
Gabon 6,785
Mauritius 6,628
Tanzania 6,545
Ethiopia 6,354
Laos 6,129
Comoros 6,094
Chad 6,083
Togo 5,997
Bahrain 5,770
Latvia 5,737
Benin 5,711
Qatar 5,627
Rwanda 5,602
Cambodia 5,561
Zambia 5,456
New Zealand 5,397
Burkina Faso 5,374
Somalia 5,351
Denmark 5,205
Macedonia 4,960
Namibia 4,845
Montenegro 4,763
Uganda 4,751
Jamaica 4,449
Madagascar 4,424
Mauritania 4,423
Niger 4,416
Bhutan 4,376
Honduras 4,192
Estonia 4,121
El Salvador 3,886
Dominican Republic 3,845
Timor-Leste 3,792
Brunei Darussalam 3,698
Trinidad and Tobago 3,693
Cabo Verde 3,380
Paraguay 3,290
Guatemala 3,250
Solomon Islands 3,247
Botswana 3,203
Bahamas 3,140
Panama 3,134
Maldives 2,947
Lesotho 2,820
Slovenia 2,819
Guinea-Bissau 2,719
Iceland 2,683
Eswatini 2,612
Mozambique 2,573
Costa Rica 2,553
Nicaragua 2,528
Macao 2,514
Uruguay 2,411
Djibouti 2,293
Malawi 2,271
Burundi 2,268
Cuba 2,019
Eritrea 1,974
Vanuatu 1,783
Bermuda 1,759
Gambia 1,710
Central African Republic 1,646
Papua New Guinea 1,604
North Korea 1,535
Guyana 1,492
Equatorial Guinea 1,472
Andorra 1,320
Tonga 1,213
Barbados 1,200
Fiji 1,198
Sierra Leone 1,189
Malta 1,168
Kiribati 1,061
Saint Lucia 1,028
Liechtenstein 1,017
Suriname 920
Liberia 834
Belize 829
Gibraltar 818
Puerto Rico 813
San Marino 802
Sao Tome and Principe 782
Samoa 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 704
Dominica 700
Antigua and Barbuda 557
Cayman Islands 490
Seychelles 486
Grenada 478
Saint Kitts and Nevis 466
Tuvalu 459
South Sudan 389
Monaco 374
Federated States of Micronesia 369
British Virgin Islands 353
Cook Islands 211
Nauru 209
Marshall Islands 169
Curaçao 161
Turks and Caicos Islands 157
Vatican City 100
Sint Maarten 99
Aruba 89
Anguilla 87
Tokelau 68
Niue 38
Palau 29
Montserrat 23

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