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What is the female labor force participation rate in countries? - Answers

Questions answered : 1058||Last updated on : November 16th, 2018 At 08:45am (ET)
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What is the female labor force participation rate in countries?

Female labor force participation rate

A striking phenomenon of recent times, is the change in the extent of women’s share in the labor force, driving employment trends and shrinking gender gaps. The assignment of gender roles and division of labor within the families begets relations of supremacy and obscurity between men and women. As noted by Engels (1972), “it was not possible for women to achieve equality with men as long as they did not take part in production.” This thought was fueled by feminist scholars that claim women’s commodification was a prerequisite for women’s liberation.

The International Labor Organization in its World Employment and Social Outlook revealed that the women labor participation rate across the globe was 48.5% in 2018, lurking behind by 26.5% to its male counterparts.Few factors attributing to such circumstances were-

• Informal Economy-
This is the time invested by women in activities not considered as ‘economic’ and that fall outside the traditional economic production boundary. As stipulated by the ILO, the goods and services produced, used for domestic consumption do not account as economic activities.
• Institutional structure-
Policy programs and women’s participation are closely linked. Women tend to work more than men but these are largely the unpaid activities like daycare work, which are not included in market work. Policies framed benefitting employed women would ensure sustainability of women labor force.
• Social issues-
Various issues pertaining to maternal health care including childbirth and period after burdens women’s time management. With the decline in maternal mortality rates, the labor participation rates have risen, correlating the two.
• Cultural Norms-
The role played by culture is a looming factor in the employment rates of women. Culture frames the regime of a nation. A welfare-state is seen as a more empowering structure to women.

In the backdrop of these facts, there has been a substantial narrowing in the gap between the employment rates of men and women, especially in the last century. Men, although still outnumber women in the labor force, the ratio is notably improving. The female labor force participation rate is defined as the ratio of females to male, in proportion, of a country’s working age population(15years-64years), that is engaged in labor market, either working or looking for work.

There are remarkable international variations amongst the countries owing to various social institutional and economic structures. Countries like Syria, Jordan, Libya and South Africa show the highest levels of percentage of unemployed women labor force ranging between 58%-80% (percentage of labor force). The prevailing low economic advancements and lagging educational attainments determines the low quality of employment for women in these countries.

On the other hand, countries like Niger, Cambodia, Myanmar and Nepal have a larger female labor force ranging between 0.2%-2.9%. The East and Southeast Asian nations, attributing to the rapid development in the 20th century, witnessed a larger women participation in the agriculture and manufacturing sectors. Overall, improvements in the education system have paved the way for better job opportunities.

Given below is the table depicting varying women unemployment rates prevalent across countries-

Country

Percentage (2018)

Country

Percentage (2018)

Syria

80.3

Bangladesh

14

Palestinian

70.2

Trinidad and Tobago

14

Libya

67

Azerbaijan

13.8

Jordan

62.8

Nicaragua

13.5

South Africa

58.8

Maldives

13.4

French Polynesia

58.6

Bahrain

13.3

Bosnia and Herzegovina

58.4

Slovenia

13

Eswatini

53.8

Luxembourg

12.9

Namibia

53.4

New Zealand

12.9

Saint Lucia

50

Burkina Faso

12.8

Macedonia

48.7

Bulgaria

12.6

Greece

48.5

Djibouti

12.4

Iran

48.2

Moldova

12.4

Saudi Arabia

46.9

Guinea-Bissau

12.3

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

46.1

Honduras

12.3

Egypt

45

Paraguay

12.1

Lesotho

44.1

Hungary

12

Botswana

42.9

Bhutan

11.9

Gabon

42.9

Eritrea

11.9

Sudan

42.9

Malaysia

11.9

Haiti

42.6

Somalia

11.9

Armenia

42.4

Lithuania

11.6

Mozambique

41.9

Ecuador

11.5

Algeria

40.8

India

11.5

Tunisia

40

Ireland

11.5

New Caledonia

39.6

Australia

11.4

Yemen

37.8

Central African Republic

11.3

Serbia

37.5

Vanuatu

11.2

Spain

37.5

Chad

11.1

Italy

37.1

Pakistan

10.8

Jamaica

36.7

Cameroon

10.6

Brazil

34.9

Denmark

10.6

Kuwait

34.3

United Kingdom

10.6

Montenegro

33.7

Estonia

10.2

Kenya

33.1

North Korea

10.2

Sao Tome and Principe

32.7

Taiwan

10.2

Bahamas

32.2

Malta

10.1

Belize

31.8

El Salvador

10

Mauritius

31.5

Ethiopia

10

Brunei Darussalam

31.1

Canada

9.9

Barbados

31

China

9.6

Uruguay

30.1

South Korea

9.6

Sri Lanka

28.6

Zimbabwe

9.5

Guyana

28.2

United Arab Emirates

9.3

Western Sahara

28.2

Norway

8.9

Georgia

28.1

Czech Republic

8.8

Albania

27.9

Guatemala

8.8

Croatia

27.5

Netherlands

8.8

Oman

27.1

Austria

8.7

Suriname

26.7

Comoros

8.7

Fiji

26.5

Philippines

8.6

Argentina

25.9

Malawi

8.5

Costa Rica

25.9

Bolivia

8.4

Turkey

25.6

Dominican Republic

8.3

Portugal

25.5

Peru

8.3

Iraq

24.4

Hong Kong

8.2

Samoa

24

Thailand

8.1

Colombia

23.8

Switzerland

8

Mauritania

22.6

Turkmenistan

8

Cyprus

22.3

United States

8

Congo

22

Democratic Republic of the Congo

7.9

Lebanon

22

Mexico

7.9

United States Virgin Islands

21.8

Israel

7.8

Puerto Rico

21.7

Iceland

7

Tajikistan

21.7

Viet Nam

7

Venezuela

21.5

Senegal

5.9

Afghanistan

21.2

Singapore

5.9

Ukraine

21.2

Germany

5.8

France

21.1

Sierra Leone

5.7

Kyrgyzstan

20.9

Benin

5.6

Cape Verde

20.5

Ghana

5.3

Slovakia

20.4

Kazakhstan

5.2

Mongolia

20.1

Cuba

5

Mali

19.4

Côte d’Ivoire

4.9

Angola

19.3

Solomon Islands

4.7

Finland

19.3

Tanzania

4.7

Romania

19.1

Guinea

4.6

Chile

18.7

Japan

4.5

Belgium

18

Tonga

4.2

Timor-Leste

17.5

Papua New Guinea

4.1

Gambia

17.4

Liberia

4

Russian Federation

17

Uganda

3.7

Sweden

16.9

Madagascar

3.1

Morocco

16.7

Nepal

2.9

Channel Islands

16.5

Rwanda

2.6

Panama

16.5

Macau

2.4

South Sudan

16.5

Togo

2.2

Zambia

15.8

Burundi

1.9

Uzbekistan

15.5

Myanmar

1.9

Nigeria

15.3

Qatar

1.8

Poland

15.2

Laos

1.6

Indonesia

15.1

Belarus

1.2

Latvia

14.9

Cambodia

0.4

Guam

14.8

Niger

0.2

Equatorial Guinea

14.4

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