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Maps / World War I / Gallipoli Campaign - 1915

Gallipoli Campaign - 1915

When:
February 16, 1915 – January 9, 1916

Where:
Gallipoli Peninsula - Turkey (erstwhile Ottoman Empire)

Who:
Allied Powers:          British Empire
  • Australia
  • New Zealand
  • India
  • United Kingdom
France
  • French West Africa
Central Powers: Ottoman Empire
Austria-Hungary
Germany


Summary:
The Gallipoli Campaign was a joint military operation of the Allied Powers in the Gallipoli Peninsula in the erstwhile Ottoman Empire.
The operations were undertaken to open up a third front in addition to the Eastern and Western Fronts. The campaign was also an attempt to secure control of the Dardanelles Strait,which was closed down by the Ottoman Empire following their entry into the war. The strait was an easy route connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Black Sea, allowing France and Britain access to Russia.

The Gallipoli Campaign was the idea of Winston Churchill. Internal opposition in Britain did not deter Churchill, who secured the sanction of the War Cabinet on January 28, 1915.

The Allies launched an initial naval attack on February 16, 1915, but the attacks were paused many times due to bad weather conditions. The intermittent attacks lasted until March 1915, and were halted for military assistance. General Sir Ian Hamilton commanded the British force stationed in Egypt. The French too contributed to the build up.

On April 25, 1915, the Allied troops landed on the peninsula. The Allied assaults were intermittent and progress was slow. By August 6, 1915, reinforcements arrived and landed on the Suvla Bay. The skirmishes between the Allied and Central forces remained largely indecisive and cost both sides a number of losses.

In September 1915, Lieutenant General Sir Charles Monro took charge from Sir Ian Hamilton and expressed his opinion in favor of abandoning the campaign. Lord Kitchener, the British Secretary of State for War, concurred with Monro’s suggestions after visiting the peninsula in November 1915. The Gallipoli Campaign was abandoned in January 1916.

Outcome:
The Gallipoli Campaign ended in a clear victory for the Central Powers. The operation caused severe damage to both sides. While the Allies recorded over 220,000 casualties the Central troops lost 253,000 soldiers.

The Gallipoli Campaign had a remarkable outcome in terms of reviving Turkish nationalistic tendencies. The death of the Ottoman Empire and the rise of a nationalistic spirit among the Turkish people was the foundation for the formation of the Republic of Turkey.

Not unlike the Turkish people, the Australian, Indian, and New Zealand troops who took part in the campaign as part of the British Empire experienced the initial upsurge of nationalism. This eventually led to the demand for independent states, free from the dominion of the British rule.

The campaign had resonating implications in Britain. Winston Churchill resigned following the failure. H. H. Asquith, the British Prime Minister resigned, and was succeeded by David Lloyd George toward the end of 1916. - See more at: file:///E:/mapsworld/world-war-i/gallipoli-campaign.html#sthash.Qs0ouL83.dpuf



  Major Battles of World War I  
Battle of Mons - 1914Gallipoli Campaign - 1915
Battle of Tannenberg – 1914Battles of Gaza - 1917
Battle of Heligoland Bight - 1914Second Battle of Aisne - 1917
First Battle of Marne – 1914Second Battle of Arras - 1917
First Battle of the Masurian Lakes – 1914Battle of Messines – 1917
First Battle of Aisne – 1914Battle of Passchendaele - 1917
First Battle of Albert - 1914Battle of Caporetto - 1917
First Battle of Arras – 1914Battle of Cambrai - 1917
First Battle of Ypres – 1914German Spring Offensive - 1918
Gallipoli Campaign – 1915Hundred Days Offensive - 1918
Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes – 1915Gallipoli Campaign - 1915
Battles of Isonzo – 1915Second Battle of Somme - 1918
Loos-Artois Offensive - 1915Second Battle of Marne - 1918
Battle of Verdun - 1916Battle of St Mihiel - 1918
Gallipoli Campaign - 1915Battle of Cambrai - 1917
First Battle of Somme - 1916Battle of Vittori Veneto - 1918


For further info please get in touch with
Bill Spicer Executive VP, MapXL
For US Queries
  (408) 637-0064   bill@mapxl.com

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