Counties and Regions : There are 66 counties in South Dakota, with those to the east of the Missouri River being smaller and more numerous. The western counties have a much higher percentage of Native American inhabitants. The general regions of South Dakota are as follows:
- Black Hills (southwestern portion)
- Coteau des Prairies
- East River
- West River
Population : With a little more than 800,000 people, South Dakota is is the bottom five U.S. states by population. It has one of the higher percentages of Native American citizens at above 8 percent.
Major Cities : The only city in South Dakota with more than 100,000 residents is Sioux Falls, which has about 158,000 people. By contrast, Rapid City, the second most populated city, has roughly 67,000. The state capital, Pierre, is home to less than 15,000 people.
Story Behind the Name : In much the same way as North Dakota, South Dakota is named after the Dakota Indian tribe (a subset of the Sioux, one of the largest tribes in the United States).
History and Colonization : Like other areas of the United States, South Dakota was occupied by Native American tribes for thousands of years before the European arrival. It was colonized more slowly than many other places due to its remoteness. France and Spain both laid claim to the region in the eighteenth century, but enforcing it was not a priority for them. Americans gained ownership through the Louisiana Purchase, and slowly began to create settlements there. Still, not many arrived until the spread of the railroads really picked up in the latter half of the nineteenth century.
The growing number of white settlements sparked conflict with the native Dakota people. This only intensified when gold was discovered in the Black Hills, an area sacred to the tribe. American prospectors flooded into the region, in violation of treaties that had promised the land to the Dakota Indians. Several Indian Wars followed, topped off by the infamous massacre at Wounded Knee in which hundreds of native civilians were killed. The U.S. government eventually granted much of the land to the prospectors, breaking its agreement with the Dakota. This issue has yet to be completely resolved.
South Dakota’s economy has traditionally relied on agriculture, but the state’s farms took a major hit during the Great Depression with the onset of the Dust Bowl. Many South Dakotans migrated away from the state during this time and the decades that followed. Manufacturing industries, however, revitalized the state’s economy during World War II, along with an increased demand for its agricultural products. Public works projects, such as dams and bridges, provided jobs and increased infrastructure during the 1930s and 1940s.
Despite a growth in industrial businesses, South Dakota remains a primarily rural state. Tourism has grown over the decades, centered around the Black Hills region where the famous Mount Rushmore National Memorial is located. The Dakota tribe has won a lawsuit against the United States government for what occurred in the Black Hills during the nineteenth century, but has refused to accept a financial settlement rather than the return of the land itself, and so the case is ongoing.
South Dakota Trivia
1.Arikara were the first indigenous Americans to have resided in South Dakota.
3.Mammoth Site is held in high regard in scientific circles as it houses the remains of many mammoths.
4.The state was taken over by USA in 1803 through the Louisiana Purchase.
5.The state has been named after the prominent Native American race of the region - the Sioux.
6.Spearfish stages Black Hills Passion Play, a famous yearly event.
7.It was in 1743 that Francois Verendrye and Louis-Joseph started to survey the region.
8.The ring-necked pheasant is South Dakota's official bird.
9.During the mid 90s, at least 90% of the land area in South Dakota was categorized as agricultural land.
10.After Sitting Bull's death, his horse became a part of the Wild West Show run by Buffalo Bill. He showed most of the tricks that he learnt from his master at these events.
11.It was on 2nd November in 1889 that South Dakota gained statehood. It was preceded by 39 others.
12.South Dakota houses 8 reservations meant for Indian Americans.
13.A church located in Green Islands was cleaned up as it is during the 1881 flood,
14.The state is also home to the Mount Rushmore National Memorial.
15.Mitchell houses the Corn Palace, which is a globally known monument.
16.The Badlands National Park has proof of evolution that has gone on for thirty five million years.
17.In the areas that lie to Rockies' east, the tallest mountain range is Black Hills.
18.Almost 50% of the state's residents stay in farms.
19.Homestake Mine is located in Lead. It is among the biggest gold pits in the region.
20.In 1817 the Fort Pierre was set up. It was the earliest permanent residence of the area.
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