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Countries with the Highest Percentage of Females Employed in Agriculture

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What Countries have the Highest Percentage of Females Employed in Agriculture?

What Countries have the Highest Percentage of Females Employed in Agriculture?
Map of World depicting percentage of females employed in agriculture

The activity of agriculture is globally recognised as the driving engine of the economies. With nations featuring high number of poor population, the agricultural sector is seen as the main tool to attain growth and elevate poverty. This is due to the large proportion of the people dependent on it as a source to earn livelihood. Yet, it is most under performing sector in most developing countries. Women representing a crucial resource in agriculture and the rural economy, face many constraints as against their male counterparts, in terms of access to productive resource.

Varying roles involving women, like farming, labor work and entrepreneurship, make essential contributions to the agricultural economies, and range considerably within and between regions. With agricultural and social forces changing around the world, transformations in the agricultural sector are also evident. Rural women employed in agricultural activities, often manage complex households and multiple livelihood pursuits. These largely revolve around producing agricultural crops for subsistence and commercial uses, tending animals, preparing food, working for additional wages in agricultural enterprises, collecting fuel and water, engaging in trade and marketing, taking care of family members and maintaining their homes. While these activities demand time and energy, they are usually referred to as ‘non-economic activities‘, and does not fall within the purview of ‘economically active employment‘.

This also brings forth another significant constraint hindering women development and growth. While records state the women population make tremendous contributions to the agricultural and rural economies, the exact contribution in terms of magnitude and nature of the work is hard to assess. The global average is witnessed to be dominated by Asia, with sub-regional averages ranging from 35% to 50%. In case of sub-Saharan Africa, women employed in agricultural activities account for almost 50%. The developing countries of the Americas, reveal much lower average female labor force employed in agriculture. Whereas the South American countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, contribute to the rising figures and dominate the average. Universally, agriculture is a significant sector to women than men, in terms of employment. The figures show that both the level of development and the distribution of employment varies across regions, with significant gaps between male and female level of employment in agriculture.

A precise breakdown of time use by farming activity, also reveal that women are typically involved in all the activities including land preparation, fertiliser application, weeding, harvesting and storage, but did not provide a majority of labor. Yet, compared to men, women and girls are much more affected by the social ills of poverty and disease. Even though, the migration trends show movement of men to urban areas, in search of secondary and tertiary work opportunities, the women in the labor market receive starvation wages.

Women empowerment, rendering equal rights and access to land are hence the only means to reach higher economic growth, food security and enhanced conditions for future generations. Women form the backbone of the development of national and rural economies, comprising 43% of the world’s agricultural labor force, rising to 70% in some countries. These countries have women engaged in field work, but do not have access and control over agricultural land and productive resources. With agriculture becoming the prime alternative to rural women, there is a need to frame and direct better policy measures to deal with cultural resistance and adaptations. The call of the hour requires investments and better support wages. Additionally, measures that facilitate a transition to a type of agriculture that respects environment and conservation of natural resources, in sync with benefitting women, seem necessary.

Complimenting such measures, are the efforts that should be directed in the creation of favourable conditions in agricultural areas, including road network reinforcement for transportation, commercialisation and processing of the end products. The social policies of health, education, welfare also require amendments, with focus on the strengthening of rural women dependent on agricultural as a mode of income. The new emerging techniques in respect to the modern agriculture, tailored to meet local conditions and using resources in sustainable manner, should be imparted to rural women to be more productive. Hence, participation in policies that benefit rural women can help attain and sustain higher levels of productivity, generate incomes and eradicate poverty.

Below given table mentions the countries and the percentage of females employed in agricultural sector:

S.No. Country Name 2018
1 Afghanistan 55.73
2 Angola 55.53
3 Albania 42.29
4 United Arab Emirates 0.13
5 Argentina 0.01
6 Armenia 36.59
7 Australia 1.63
8 Austria 3.63
9 Azerbaijan 41.94
10 Burundi 96.29
11 Belgium 0.69
12 Benin 33.78
13 Burkina Faso 20.18
14 Bangladesh 59.43
15 Bulgaria 4.47
16 Bahrain 0.05
17 Bahamas, The 0.44
18 Bosnia and Herzegovina 16.73
19 Belarus 7.21
20 Belize 5.23
21 Bolivia 28.25
22 Brazil 4.23
23 Barbados 1.79
24 Brunei Darussalam 0.43
25 Bhutan 64.81
26 Botswana 17.86
27 Central African Republic 74.99
28 Canada 0.95
29 Switzerland 2.55
30 Channel Islands 3.22
31 Chile 5.25
32 China 24.24
33 Cote d’Ivoire 40.14
34 Cameroon 51.86
35 Congo, Dem. Rep. 76.79
36 Congo, Rep. 36.49
37 Colombia 7.62
38 Comoros 63.01
39 Cabo Verde 8.16
40 Costa Rica 4.47
41 Cuba 7.62
42 Cyprus 1.06
43 Czech Republic 1.76
44 Germany 0.87
45 Djibouti 52.52
46 Denmark 0.99
47 Dominican Republic 1.29
48 Algeria 3.13
49 Ecuador 24.57
50 Egypt, Arab Rep. 36.66
51 Eritrea 66.42
52 Spain 2.22
53 Estonia 1.89
54 Ethiopia 59.52
55 European Union 3.04
56 Finland 2.11
57 Fiji 38.67
58 France 1.56
59 Gabon 56.78
60 United Kingdom 0.63
61 Georgia 45.45
62 Ghana 26.42
63 Guinea 70.38
64 Gambia, The 36.69
65 Guinea-Bissau 70.13
66 Equatorial Guinea 41.51
67 Greece 11.33
68 Guatemala 9.26
69 Guam 0.05
70 Guyana 6.23
71 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.14
72 Honduras 9.38
73 Croatia 5.05
74 Haiti 34.14
75 Hungary 2.79
76 Indonesia 28.53
77 India 57.06
78 Ireland 1.52
79 Iran, Islamic Rep. 21.07
80 Iraq 23.56
81 Iceland 1.93
82 Israel 0.50
83 Italy 2.31
84 Jamaica 9.05
85 Jordan 1.13
86 Japan 2.96
87 Kazakhstan 14.21
88 Kenya 63.85
89 Kyrgyz Republic 27.59
90 Cambodia 30.38
91 Korea, Rep. 4.41
92 Kuwait 0.05
93 Lao PDR 69.75
94 Lebanon 15.65
95 Liberia 46.14
96 Libya 9.21
97 St. Lucia 4.10
98 Sri Lanka 29.23
99 Lesotho 58.22
100 Lithuania 5.30
101 Luxembourg 0.68
102 Latvia 4.13
103 Macao SAR, China 1.15
104 Morocco 59.22
105 Moldova 27.78
106 Madagascar 64.96
107 Maldives 2.20
108 Mexico 3.69
109 North Macedonia 15.72
110 Mali 63.47
111 Malta 0.22
112 Myanmar 44.91
113 Montenegro 6.84
114 Mongolia 25.97
115 Mozambique 81.76
116 Mauritania 54.48
117 Mauritius 5.90
118 Malawi 76.69
119 Malaysia 6.62
120 Namibia 17.56
121 New Caledonia 1.35
122 Niger 71.48
123 Nigeria 26.39
124 Nicaragua 9.18
125 Netherlands 1.44
126 Norway 0.92
127 Nepal 80.06
128 New Zealand 4.21
129 Oman 0.39
130 Pakistan 72.72
131 Panama 8.57
132 Peru 25.80
133 Philippines 15.15
134 Papua New Guinea 70.19
135 Poland 8.76
136 Puerto Rico 0.48
137 Korea, Dem. People’s Rep. 64.88
138 Portugal 4.12
139 Paraguay 14.81
140 French Polynesia 5.02
141 Qatar 0.03
142 Romania 22.09
143 Russian Federation 3.99
144 Rwanda 76.69
145 South Asia 59.51
146 Saudi Arabia 0.12
147 Sudan 58.84
148 Senegal 27.27
149 Singapore 0.23
150 Solomon Islands 62.46
151 Sierra Leone 57.05
152 El Salvador 3.90
153 Somalia 76.39
154 Serbia 14.74
155 South Sudan 61.98
156 Sao Tome and Principe 12.37
157 Suriname 3.91
158 Slovak Republic 1.35
159 Slovenia 4.75
160 Sweden 1.00
161 Eswatini 10.85
162 Syrian Arab Republic 13.45
163 Chad 83.86
164 Togo 29.00
165 Thailand 27.90
166 Tajikistan 68.97
167 Turkmenistan 21.96
168 Timor-Leste 49.57
169 Tonga 3.44
170 Trinidad and Tobago 1.56
171 Tunisia 11.41
172 Turkey 27.89
173 Tanzania 69.40
174 Uganda 76.04
175 Ukraine 12.97
176 Uruguay 3.80
177 United States 0.75
178 Uzbekistan 37.38
179 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 6.70
180 Venezuela, RB 1.31
181 Vietnam 41.11
182 Vanuatu 62.53
183 World 27.56
184 Samoa 3.25
185 Yemen, Rep. 58.74
186 South Africa 3.66
187 Zambia 62.12
188 Zimbabwe 71.47

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