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Mongol Empire

Archeologists have found traces suggesting human inhibition in Mongolia dating back to about 50,000 BC. The archeological evidences at the Tsagaan Agui and the Khoid Tsenkher Cave prove the existence of early human beings in Mongolia. Nomadic tribes from Stone Age settlements in Tamsagbulag and Rashaan Khad are believed to have practiced a crude form of agriculture.

Through most of the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age, Mongolia was inhabited by nomadic tribes. Historians believe that the Scythians were descendents of the Mongolians. It is since the beginning of the third century AD that Mangolia saw the emergence of powerful leaders who united the various nomadic tribes and built powerful empires.

The Dynasties of Mongolia
In about 209 BC the Modu Chanyu established the Xingnu Empire in Mongolia. An exceptionally powerful king, Modu Chanyu united the various tribes of Mongolia. The rise of the Xingnu Empire was viewed as an imminent threat to the Qin emperors of China. This led the Qin emperors to construct the Great Wall of China and guard the Chinese kingdom with manned military outposts in the wall.

The Rouran Dynasty of the Xianbei province rose to power by 330 AD and ruled a vast empire. Before the establishment of the great Mongolian Empire by Genghis Khan a number of dynasties successfully ruled the land. In about 555 AD, the Gokturks defeated the Rourans to seize control of the land. In 745 AD the Uyghur Khaganate Empire replaced the one created by the Gokturks. The Liao Dynasty and the Khanag Mongol Dynasties quickly succeeded each other. By 1206 the end of the dynastic era of Mongolia also saw the rise of Mongolia's greatest leader.

Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire
1203 AD marked the ascendancy of the Mongolian leader whose fame and repute surpassed all other Mongolian leaders. Temujin, a tribal leader, defeated the Mergids in 1189 AD and took on the title Genghis Khan in 1206. Genghis Khan united all the nomadic tribes of Mongolia and formed a single state. Through the thirteenth century Genghis Khan or Chinggis Khan as he was known to the Mongols and his descendents conquered almost all of Asia and parts of Europe as well. The Mongol Empire grew to its greatest extent and spanned from Poland to Korea and from Siberia to Vietnam.

Not only did Genghis Khan conquer the vast land but also established a peaceful and prosperous nation. The Genghis Khan administration came to be known for its superlative legal system and maintenance of historic records. The legendary Silk Route, used by traders to ply their wares between Asia and Europe came to be known for its security. The peace and flourishing commerce lasted till about 1348 when the Black Death pandemic broke out in China and spread quickly to Europe by travelers along the Silk Route.

While the great Mongolian Empire broke into four different kingdoms with the death of Genghis Khan, by 1259 with the end of Mongke Khan's reign, these kingdoms became relatively independent. Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan founded the Yuan Dynasty of China. He did away with the Song Dynasty thus establishing control over all of China. The Yuan rulers came into conflict with the Ming Dynasty in about 1368 leading to the destruction of Kakakorum, the Mongolian capital. This effectively ended the Mongolian Empire built by Genghis Khan.