Algeria's early history included periods within the Carthaginian and Phoenician settlements.
Spain began establishing settlements on coastal regions of Algeria in the beginning of the 16th century. In 1830, the French violently conquered Algeria, and ruled the country as one of its overseas territories. During French rule of Algeria, many Europeans migrated and settled there. However, by 1954, those settlers and the Muslims of Algeria faced conflict, sparking the Algerian War. The war ended in 1962, with the independence of Algeria. As an independent country, Algeria's first president was Ahmed Ben Bella, who was an authoritarian ruler and was overthrown just a few years later.
In the 1990s, Algeria faced internal conflict with its Islamic Salvation Front gunning for control of the government, and as many as 100,000 people died in the massacres that followed. Reconciliation began in 2004, with new elections, and continued in 2005 with a peace charter. Algeria continued to struggle with its government, with its people protesting in 2010 and reforms that followed.
Algeria borders Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Mali, and Niger.
- Algiers (capital)
Algeria is a country in the region of North Africa known as the Maghreb, and the largest country on the continent. In the north, Algeria features the coastline along the Mediterranean Sea and its Alboran Sea, as well as the Tell Atlas and Saharan Atlas mountain ranges, while southern regions of Algeria hold part of the Sahara Desert, featuring massive sand dunes. Other mountains in Algeria are the Aures and Nememcha, and the Ahaggar Mountains, in which the country's highest point, Mount Tahat, which stands 2,908 meters (9,541 feet) above sea level. The longest river in Algeria is the Chelif River, though the Soummam River is also an important river, located on the edge of the Tell mountains.
Points of Interest
The capital of Algeria, Algiers, is the cultural capital of the country and features the UNESCO World Heritage site, known as the Casbah. The Casbah is the ancient town of Algiers, constructed during the 17th century and featuring several mosques, including the El Kebir Mosque. Other attractions in Algiers include Aquafortland and Monument of Martyrs. Another UNESCO site in Algeria is M'zab, where visitors will find a city built up of fortresses with unique architecture in the desert. The Sahara Desert is another worldly sight and expeditions through the desert often start in Tamanrasset or Bechar. The Grand Erg Oriental is one of the large dune fields in the Sahara, not far from El-Oued, which features unique architecture of its own.
Algeria has train services offered by SNTF, with lines between Algeria and Tunisia. Within Algeria, there are train lines between Algiers an Oran, Annaba, and Constantine. To reach other destinations, domestic flights are recommended, as it is a very large company. Taxis are available in cities, and cars, particularly 4WD vehicles, are suggested for exploration of the Sahara.
Last Updated On : October 14, 2016
Official Name The Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria (al-Jumhuriyyah al-Jaza'iriyyah ad-Dimuqratiyyah ash-Sha
Lat Long28 00 N, 3 00 E
Area2,381,741 sq km or 919,595 sq mi
Population39,542,166 (July 2015 est.)
Major ReligionMuslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian and Jewish) <1% (2012 est.)
National Day5. July 1962
Form of GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
Prime MinisterAbdelmalek Sellal
CurrencyAlgerian Dinar (DZD)
GDP$551.720 billion (2014 est.)
Time ZoneCET (UTC+01)