Benin, known as the Republic of Benin, officially is a sub-Saharan country in West Africa. It shares a boundary with Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, Niger to the northeast and Burkina Faso to the northwest. The map also highlights the capital of Benin Porto-Novo in a red, yellow dot and is very useful for school presentations and other purposes.
Benin Physical Features
The country has a total area of 114,763 square kilometres (44,310 sq mi). The country lies between the Niger River in the north to the Atlantic Ocean in the south like a narrow, key-shaped, north-south strip of land located just above the equator. The map shows the latitudinal extent 6. 30’N to 12. 30′ N and longitudinal extent between 1. E to 4. E. Benin also includes four ecological regions within its boundary:
Eastern Guinean forests
Nigerian lowland forests
Guinean forest-savanna mosaic
West Sudanian Savanna
The relief of Benin is primarily flat with some undulating plains and hills. It has a slight variation in elevation, averaging about 200 m. Based on the relief, Benin consists of the following natural regions from south to north.
Benin Coastal Region
Benin has a coastline of 121 km on the Atlantic Ocean to the south. The coastal region is flat, low and sandy. Tidal marshes, lakes and lagoons back them. The lagoons are wider in the eastern part of the country, and some are interconnected. In the western region, lagoons are comparatively narrower, and many have become marshes because of sitting.
Barre Country and Benin Plateau
The Barre Country is derived from Barro,’ which means clay. This is the fertile plateau, a vast swampy area containing the Lama Marsh. The area stretches from Abomey to Allada. The landscape is primarily flat, with occasional hills (about 1,300 ft) rising here and there.
The Benin plateaus are in southern Benin. This area consists of clays on a crystalline base. They have an altitude ranging from 20 to 200 m (66 and 656 ft). The area has been categorized as a part of the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic ecoregion.
These Mountain ranges are located in the northwest of the country. It shares a boundary with Togo to the west and Burkina Faso to the north. Borgou Department and Alibori Department are towards the east and donga department to the south. The terrain is forested mountains primarily. The primary area of Pendjari National Park lies within these mountain ranges. Head swamps and shallow wetlands are there in the mountain range.
River System in Benin
The Niger River is the principal river of Benin with its three tributaries, Alibori, Mekrou, and Sota. These rivers drain the northeastern part of the country. The other major rivers in Benin are the Couffo, Mono, and the Oueme. The Couffo river flows from Benin Plateaus to drain coastal lagoons at Theme. The mono river rises in Togo, forming the frontier between Benin and Togo. Lastly, Oueme rises from Atakora and flows southward.