|Official Name||The Republic of Djibouti (Jumhouriyya Djibouti)||Capital||Djibouti||Population||906,000||Area||8,958 square miles||Currency||France (DJF)||Religion||Islam||Literacy||70.3||Languages||French, Arabic, Affar, Issa||Climate||Hot and dry through out the year|
The Republic of Djibouti is a country located in the north-east Africa on the Gulf of Aden at the southern entrance to the Red Sea. It is surrounded by Eritrea to the north; Ethiopia to the north, west, and south; and Somalia to the southeast.
Djibouti is made up of plateaus and mountains towards the north and south of the gulf. The highest mountain Moussa Ali stands 6768 ft tall along the northern border where the Ethiopian and Eritrean boundaries meet.
Towards the west, lies the desert lowland with depressions containing several salt lakes, the largest being Lake Abbé situated along the Ethiopian border. Very little of the country's land is arable, and there are no regularly flowing rivers or streams. Djibouti relies on an underground aquifer for fresh water. Djibouti is hot and dry all year round, especially during summers. The average temperature varies from 23° to 29°C in January and from 31° to 41°C in July. Annual rainfall ranges from 127 mm in the capital to 380 mm in the mountains.
As the country is mainly rocky in nature, the vegetation is mainly made up of scattered drought-tolerant grasses and shrubs. There are also a number of species of woody and herbaceous plants, including boxwood and olive trees. Wildlife includes jackals, hyenas, ostriches, and gazelles.
Thousands of birds migrate in this country from Europe and Asia during the winter season. Many tourists especially bird watchers visit Djibouti to have a glimpse of the rare species of birds here. The birds which are found here include ostrich, grebes, tropic birds, pelicans, frigate birds, flamingoes, ducks and many others. Red River Hog is one of the rare animals found in the rain forests of Djibouti. African wild dog is considered now as an endangered species.
The wilderness of Djibouti is also home to a number of reptiles including the Nile crocodile, sand snake, puff adder snake and chameleons. There are around eleven different types of scorpions found here in Djibouti.
The dense forests of acacia, olive and juniper are the habitats of different types of mammals. The terrestrial mammals commonly found in Djibouti include hedgehog, big-eared free-tailed bat, wild dog, African ass or African wild donkey, desert wart-hog, gazelles of waller, lesser kudu, oryx, beira, vervet monkey and hyrax.
Livestock herding forms the backbone of Djibouti's economy. Agriculture is an important part of the Ethiopians. Most of the land is barren and major portion of the food items produced is imported.
Services are the basis of Djibouti's economy and the strategic location of the country has also contributed to the situation. It is one of the free trade zones in northeastern Africa. Almost 66.67% of the Djiboutians live at the capital. Djibouti serves as a refueling center and a transit port, which is used by international ships. The natural resources of Djibouti are limited as is the industrial sector. Hence it is highly dependent on international assistance for its payments and development projects.
Transport, communications, and warehousing, also contribute significantly to the economy.
Over sixty per cent of the population comprises ethnic Somali origin, who form the majority in the south. Afars make up thirty percent of the population and are concentrated in the north. The remaining ten per cent is made up of Arab, French, and other small groups. French and Arabic are the official languages while Somali and Afar are also spoken widely in the south and north, respectively. Islam is the main religion but Christianity is also practiced.