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Official Name Republika Bulgaria (Republic of Bulgaria)
Capital Sofia
Population 7.9 million
Area 110,912 sq km or 42,823 sq mi
Currency Lev
Religion Christianity
Literacy 98%
Languages Bulgarian
Major Cities Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna
Climate Continental

Bulgaria, a country in southeastern Europe, has rich resources of metallic and nonmetallic minerals, mainly iron ore and coal but also suffers from serious environmental issues as most of the rivers are getting polluted by the industries.

Physical Map of Bulgaria
Over half of Bulgaria is made up of mountains. The Balkan Mountains cross the country from the northwestern corner to the Black Sea and the northern side of the Balkan Mountains slopes gradually to form the northern Bulgarian plateau, which ends at the Danube River. The central portion of the southern side of the range is bordered by a series of narrow plains. The southern part of the country has broad and irregular Rhodope Mountains, which form the boundary with Greece. At the western end of these mountains, in southwestern Bulgaria, are the Rila Mountains, which rise to a maximum elevation of 9,596 ft at Musala, the highest peak in the Balkans.

Location of Bulgaria
Bulgaria is bound on the north by Romania, on the east by the Black Sea, on the south by Turkey and Greece, and on the west by Serbia and Montenegro (formerly the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

Climate of Bulgaria
The climate of Bulgaria is mainly continental in nature, with cold winters and warm summers. The climate here is colder than other European areas. Severe droughts, frosts, winds, and hailstorms are a common feature. Dry summers, accompanied with mild humid winters are experienced in the valley of southwestern Rhodope Mountains.

Flag of Bulgaria
The flag of Bulgaria consists of three equal horizontal bands - white at the top, green in the middle and red at the bottom.

Flora And Fauna of Bulgaria
Around 33 percent of Bulgaria comprises of forests made up of tall tress, basically conifers that pass off as timbers. The Balkan Mountains and their foothills support forests of various trees. Some of the popular trees found here are Conifer, Beech, and Oak. The fauna of Bulgaria consists of bears, wolves, elks, foxes, and wildcats.

People of Bulgaria
The population of Bulgaria is made up of 85 percent of ethnic Bulgarian and 9 percent of Turkish people. The remaining 6 percent is made up of small groups of Armenians, Roma (Gypsies), Greeks, and Macedonian Slavs. Around 67 percent of these people live in urban areas. The official language is Bulgarian and is spoken by about 90 percent of the population while Turkish is also widely spoken by the minority groups.

Arts, Culture and Music of Bulgaria
Traditional Bulgarian music includes folk songs and plain chants in the Greek mode for church services. The chief native musical instruments consists of the gaida (bagpipe) and the kaval (a wooden shepherd's flute). The folk dances include hora, a round chain dance, and the ruchenitsa, a lively dance of two couples.

Modern Bulgarian orchestral and operatic compositions have occasionally gained recognition in other countries. Among leading 20th-century composers are Petko Stainov and Pancho Vladigerov.