The province is surrounded by the lands of Turkmenistan, Buxoro province, Samarkand province, and Surxondaryo province. The total population of Qashqadaryo Viloyati in Uzbekistan is around 2,029,000 with 73 % being rural population. Although this province is divided into 14 administrative districts, the inhabitants of all the districts come along together with a united feeling. Some major towns in Qashqadaryo province are Kitob, Koson, Yakkabog, Muborak, Shahrisabz, Guzor and Qamashi.
The climate of this province is continental and sometimes semi continental. The economy of Qashqadaryo Viloyati is supported by significant petroleum and natural gas reserves. The largest industry of this region is the Mubarekh Oil and Gas Processing Plant. Other industrial sectors include wool processing, light industry, textiles, food processing and construction materials. The main agricultural activities practiced in this viloyati or province is producing cotton and several other crops. Raring farm animals are also very common in Qashqadaryo Viloyati. The Talimardjan reservoir with a strong infrastructure facilitates the irrigation of the region.
The birthplace of Amir Temur, Shahrisabz is the main tourist attraction in this region. Qashqadaryo Viloyati has a well-developed transport system. There are more than 350 km of railways and 4000 km of surfaced roads.