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Taiwan's nearest neighbors are the People's Republic of China, Japan, and the Philippines. Taiwan covers the island of Taiwan (once called Formosa) as well as smaller islands, which include Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu. Taiwan covers an area of 36,193 square kilometers (13,974 square miles), its main island making up 35,883 square kilometers (13,855 square miles). The capital of Taiwan is Taipei, and the most populous city of Taiwan is New Taipei City.
Taiwan is situated with the East China Sea to the north, the Philippine Sea to the east, the Luzon Strait and the South China Sea to the south. Taiwan is 180 kilometers (110 miles) off the coast of mainland China.
The population of Taiwan is about 23.3 million, making it the seventeenth most densely populated country in the world. The people of Taiwan are primarily of Han descent, with a small minority of indigenous Taiwanese people. The official language of Taiwan is Standard Chinese, though regional languages recognized by the government include Taiwanese and Hakka.
The Republic of China was established on January 1, 1912. The People's Republic of China claims the territory of Taiwan as part of its own, while Taiwan's Republic of China claims mainland China and Outer Mongolia as part of its territory, though it only occupies its own islands. This continues to be a contentious issue in the region.
Last Updated On : February 13, 2013