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What is a computer ? It is nothing but a multi-tasking electronic computing machine used for the purpose of calculation, performing complicated programs, in short, inputting, outputting, processing and storage of data. To do all these, the manpower required would be huge and yet the possibilities of human error would still persist . To overcome all such calculation problems, man has, since ancient times, improved upon technology and application of mathematics to travel all the way from building the abacus to the present day super computers.

Computers have now become an indispensable part of our lives as we depend upon them for taking out money from ATM counters, booking on-line tickets, on-line marketing, communications, etc. It is not just about private usage that the computers are important, also for the purpose of research, weather forecasts and running of entertainment and business organizations. The introduction and improvement of computer applications is responsible for a sea change in post 20th century lifestyle.

The Computer memory comprises Read Only Memory (ROM) and the Random Access Memory (RAM). While the ROM is constant and cannot be changed, the RAM is that part of the memory which can be used for calculating and other operations.

The word �computers� remind us instantly of desktop computers. But actually they apply to a wide variety of systems such as Tablet PC, Embedded computers, Workstation, Towers, PDA, supercomputers, mainframes, minicomputers, etc.

•  The Visual Display Unit

•  The Computer Processing unit •  The Keyboard •  The Mother Board

In addition to these there may be

•  A mouse •  A pair of sound boxes •  Printer •  Web cam •  Joystick


History of Computers

The history of computers is a gradual development from the time abacus was invented till modern times. Charles Babbage, the inventor of the first computing machines, made history by inventing the first ever computers which was far simpler from what generation Z can imagine. With time came the electronic computers, thanks to the efforts of John Atanasoff, a 1942 graduate of Iowa State University. Today the evolution of modern computers has changed the course of human history itself.

The History of Computers can be listed as follows:-

•  What Charles Babbage had designed was a simple analytical Difference machine for computing logarithms (1822) and Analytical machine (1833) for following instructions from punch cards.

•  In the year 1942 Lady Ada Byron, the daughter of Lord Byron becomes the first Programmer to work upon Babbage's designs thus contributing to the history of computers.

•  However, the credit of inventing the first computing machines goes to the two Stockholm Based scientists, George and Edvard Scheutz.



•  The patent for the automatic punch card tabulating machine was bought by Herman Hollerith.

•  The computing scale company, international Time recording company and Hollerith's tabulating company come together in the year 1911 to form the Computer-Tabulating-Recording company, the first ever manufacturers of the computing machine.

•  In MIIT, 1925 huge scale analog calculators are manufactured under the supervision of Vannevar Bush.

•  The first digital computer comes out in the form of a complex number calculator. George Sibitz demonstrates the functioning of the same in the year 1940.



•  IBM makes a breakthrough in the history of computers by launching electronic computers, Selective Sequence Electronic Computers, and a computer with 1200 tubes in 1947 and 1948.

•  In 1952 the first electronic stored-program machine is launched by IBM.

The efforts made by IBM, Benjamin Curley, DEC, CDC, NCR, Apple, Intel, Sun Microsystems, Compaq, and most importantly Microsoft chairman Bill Gates has, so to say ushered in a commendable tide of revolution in modernizing the computing machines. From the bulky, tedious electronic machines that they were, today they have been minimized in size but yield maximum output in terms of utility. Be it for the sake of home or office, computers surely have a long way for aid in the progress of human history.









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