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In 1878, the Principality of Montenegro was established as an independent state, often at war with the Ottoman Empire. The territory of Montenegro grew during this period. During the Balkan Wars beginning in 1912, the Balkan states fought together against the Ottoman rule, resulting in the increase of Montenegro’s territory.
Montenegro joined Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia to become Yugoslavia in 1922. However, World War II brought the Italian occupation of the region, and the Kingdom of Montenegro was formed under that influence. Along with Yugoslavia, Montenegro became a Socialist country in 1945. The union of Yugoslavia was dissolved around 1991, and Montenegro united with Serbia, fighting alongside the Serbs in the Bosnian and Croatian Wars. The two states called themselves Serbia and Montenegro, until the latter became independent in 2006.
Montenegro is bordered by Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, and Albania, with some coastline along the Adriatic Sea in the Mediterranean.
- Podgorica (capital)
Montenegro is located in the Balkan Peninsula along the Adriatic Sea of the Mediterranean. The coastal region of Montenegro is characterized by coastal plains, rising to the mountainous regions inland. The Durmitor Mountains traverse the country, and its highest peaks include Zla Kolata in the Prokletije range (known as the Albanian Alps), and the Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor Range.
Important bodies of water in Montenegro include the Bay of Kotor, the country’s largest bay, and Skadar Lake, the largest lake in Montenegro. Significant rivers include the Zeta River and the Tara River.
Points of Interest
Montenegro has many scenic sites, while much of the country is rural. The coasts of Montenegro are some of its best known natural features, but there is much more to the country. The mountainous Durmitor National Park is home to mountains and canyons, including the Tara River Canyon. Tara River Canyon holds the title of the second longest canyon worldwide, and has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as is the park that encompasses it.
Another scenic location in Montenegro is the Bay of Kotor, along which the city of Kotor is situated. The town features medieval architecture, including several churches and the city walls. Budva is another great medieval town in Montenegro, with churches and charming homes, as well as a long beautiful Riviera. Aside from these sites, the town is known for its resorts and nightlife.
The main international airports in Montenegro are Podgorica Airport outside of Podgorica, and Tivat Airport. Most of the country’s international traffic enters into Podgorica, as Tivat has primarily a regional flight service. The Port of Bar is Montenegro’s major seaport, and is an access point for ferries arriving primarily from Italy and other small ports around Montenegro. The railways in Montenegro offer service to Serbia, without links to other neighboring nations because the system fell into disrepair in the late 20th century. There are regional railways for travel within Montenegro, and this is a fairly reliable and inexpensive method of transportation.
Bus is a reliable and safe method of transport into Montenegro, between its cities, and around them. There are paved and unpaved roads across Montenegro, and the main ones that run between major parts of Montenegro are somewhat improved, but remain narrow, unsafe, and in poor condition.
Last Updated On : May 23, 2014
Official LanguageMontenegrin language
Major ReligionAnglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, etc
Form of GovernmentParliamentary republic
Prime MinisterMilo Dukanovic
GDP$7.340 billion 2012 estimate
Time ZoneCET (UTC+1)