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Mongolia Facts

Find all about Mongolia facts here, including history, maps, tradition, people, language, cities, currency, government, economy and the like.


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What is the capital of Mongolia?
Ulaanbaatar

Where is Mongolia located?
Northern Asia (between Russia and China)

How big is Mongolia?
1,565,000 square kilometers or 604,250 square miles

What is the population of Mongolia?
About 3 million

What type of government does Mongolia have?
Parliamentary republic

What countries border Mongolia?
Russia and China. Kazakhstan is also very close to Mongolia, but they do not share borders. Mongolia is landlocked, meaning it does not border any bodies of water.

When was Mongolia formed?
Mongolia was formed as the Hunnic Empire in 209 BC.

The Mongol Empire formed during the 13th and 14th centuries, starting in 1206.

What was the Mongol Empire?
The Mongol Empire was formed when Genghis Khan (sometimes spelled Chinggis Khaan, born Borjigin Temüjin) unified nomadic
tribes of the region and began the invasion and conquest of surrounding areas. The Mongol Empire was eventually the largest contiguous empire in the history of the world, once occupying 22% of the earth’s land, and 100 million people.

Genghis Khan’s grandson, Kublai Khan, set up the Yuan Dynasty after Genghis Khan’s death, in what is now China. A century later, the Yuan Dynasty became the Ming Dynasty when Ming armies took control of the area.

What caused the fall of the Mongol Empire?
Several factors caused the fall of the Mongol Empire, including disunity between the descendents of Genghis Khan, which led to a civil war (called the Berke-Hulagu war). The war was caused, in part, by religious differences and territorial disputes between the smaller divisions of the Empire. Another factor leading to the fall of the Mongol Empire was the Black death.

When did Mongolia achieve independence?
Mongolia won independence from China on July 11, 1921 with help from the Soviet Union, who created a communist regime in the country. In the 1990s, there was a democratic revolution in Mongolia, leading to a new constitution in 1992.

What is the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region?
Inner Mongolia is an autonomous region of the People’s Republic of China, established in 1947. Chinese and Mongolian languages are both spoken. More ethnic Mongolians live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region than in Mongolia.

How is Mongolia divided?
There are 21 provinces (called aimag or aygmuud) and 1 municipality (called khot), which is the capital in Ulaanbaatar.

Provinces:
  • Arkhangai
  • Bayan-Ölgii
  • Bayankhongor
  • Bulgan
  • Darkhan-Uul
  • Dornod
  • Dornogovi
  • Govi-Altai
  • Govisümber
  • Khentii
  • Khovd
  • Khövsgöl
  • Ömnögovi
  • Orkhon
  • Övörkhangai
  • Selenge
  • Sükhbaatar
  • Töv
  • Uvs
  • Zavkhan

Who is the President of Mongolia?
Tsakhia Elbegdorj

Who is the Prime Minister of Mongolia?
Norovyn Altankhuyag

What language do Mongolians speak?
The official language is Khalkha Mongolian, but Mongolic Khamnigan, Kazakh, Tuvan, and dialects of Oirat and Buryat are spoken around the country.

How much of Mongolia’s population is nomadic?
Around 30% of the Mongolian population is nomadic or semi-nomadic.

How do the nomadic people of Mongolia live?
Nomadic herding families usually live in a “ger” or a yurt, which is a white tent made with felt. Gers are easy to set up or take down when the family is ready to move again. The door of the ger always points to the south.

Some gers are even set up in cities, with fences around them to keep their animals. Families with this set-up sometimes live in a house during summer and a ger during winter, since they are easier to heat.

What are the physical features of Mongolia?
Eastern Mongolia is the Mountain Forest Steppe region where the Siberian forests meet the central Asian steppe. The steppes are made up of slopes and grasslands, where Mongolian herders travel with their sheep, goats, cows, camels. Southern Mongolia has the Gobi Desert region, and northern Mongolia is covered with conifer forests.

In western Mongolia are the Altai Mountains, while the Khangai Mountains traverse central Mongolia. The major river system in Mongolia is the Selenge.

Not far from the capital in Ulaanbaatar is the world’s oldest protected area, called Bogd Khan Mountain, which was first designated in 1778.