The basic education in Mauritania was not compulsory here and the enrollments in the primary section were low. In 1986 the government conducted a literacy campaign which increased the awareness among people and the literacy rates grew. But girls remained far behind than boys in terms of literacy. In 1999 the government came up with a reformatory policy of Mauritania's education where Arabian language was introduced in the first year, French in the second year of primary and even English was introduced at the First year of high School. Subjects like Mathematics, natural Sciences, Computer etc were taught in French. Many professional training centers were also opened after the reform. Students even had to spend 7 years of courses at Secondary level after this reform.
Primary school extends for six years, followed by seven years of secondary education. Secondary education can also be divided into four years of college and three years called Lycee. Students can enroll themselves in technical schools or Universities or Other Institutions of higher studies. The literacy rates are around 51.2%in the year 2000- 2004.
University Of Nouakchott
University of Nouakchott came into being in the year of 1981.It is located in Nouakchott the capital of Mauritania. This University of Nouakchott is well known for its academic standards. The university has produced some of the well known academicians, researches and professionals who have contributed to the growth of the society as a whole.
Getting admission to this esteemed Nouakchott University is difficult. In order to apply in this university the students have to have a secondary school leaving diploma i.e. known as Baccalaureat over here. In order to get admission in the third year of the University must have to possess an associate degree which is known as Deug. A fair examination system is followed here. Students are required to go through several tests like midterms and final examinations.
Different disciplines related to the branch of Humanities, science and technology are offered here. Subjects like English, Geography, History, Languages and translation, philosophy and linguistics are taught here. Professional courses include subjects like Electronic, Electro-technical, mining Geology, Business management etc. Each department has recruited scholars of that subject to impart education. There are around 302 permanent teachers to take care of students. About 8000 students come to study here. Research works are also given encouragements here. The infrastructure of the college is also great. There are laboratories facilitating education and research work. Even students from different countries come to this university in Nouakchott for higher education.
Schools in Mauritania
Mauritania was the under the shackles of French colonialism for quite a long time. Public education was first started by the French colonizers. The first schools in Mauritania were mostly set up in the Senegal River Valley. The public schools in Mauritania were mostly in the south of the country and the students mainly comprised of Black Africans. The schools that had French as the medium of instruction were not openly accepted by the people of Mauritania as they preferred Arabic Islamic schools. In order to impart education to the nomads in Mauritania various mobile schools were introduced by the French.
The government after 1960 propagated secular education. Various teacher training schools were opened in this country to produce trained teachers who in turn could impart quality education to the students. As the attendance was not compulsory there were very less students attending schools of Mauritania. But the government took several measures in order to increase the literacy rates in the country. The number of girls enrolling in Mauritania schools was far less than boys.
A new reform measure was taken up in the year of 1999. Here a uniform system of education was introduced in the school level. The rule said that French has to be introduced in the second year of primary schools. English was introduced in the first year of secondary education.
A student has to study for 6 years in primary schools and after that in seven years in the secondary education. The literacy rate now is around 51.2% in the year 2000-2004.
Research in Mauritania
Research in Mauritania is getting an impetus with various initiatives taken by the Mauritania Government. The literacy rate in Mauritania was not much high in the last decade. Previously, there were very few people in Mauritania who used to pursue higher studies and research works. However, now many bright scholars are pursuing higher studies and research in Mauritania.
Research in Mauritania comprises of research in human sciences and medical sciences, technical as well as social sciences. Research work gained momentum in the year 1974, when IMRS or the Institut Mauritanien de Recherche Scientifique was established to encourage various fields of Research of Mauritania. The aim of this institute was to conserve the Mauritanian cultural heritage.
Mauritania's research work has also achieved great height in the field of medical studies. Various scientific organizations are carrying out research on various diseases. Research is now being conducted to discover medicines and preventive measures to combat infectious diseases like Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Many researchers are engaged in this work in order to eradicate this fatal disease. Research works are also being carried out on different tropical diseases.
Money for research work in Mauritania comes from various organizations in the country or from other foreign associations. These organizations try to foster research work in Mauritania.