List of European Countries

Map of European Countries

Political Map of Europe

List of European Countries by Capital, Area and Population

Sl.No. Country Capital Area Population (2016)
1 Albania Tirana 11,100 sq mi (28,748 km2 ) 2,886,026 
2 Andorra Andorra la Vella 180.55 sq mi (467.63 km2 )
3 Armenia Yerevan 11,484 sq mi (29,743 km2 ) 2,998,577 
4 Austria Vienna 32,386 sq mi (83,879 km2 ) 8,690,076 
5 Azerbaijan Baku 33,400 sq mi (86,600 km2 ) 9,705,643 
6 Belarus Minsk 80,153 sq mi (207,595 km2 ) 9,498,364 
7 Belgium Brussels 11,787 sq mi (30,528 km2 ) 11,311,117 
8 Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo 19,767 sq mi (51,197 km2 )
9 Bulgaria Sofia 42,614 sq mi (110 370 km² ) 7,153,784 
10 Croatia Zagreb 21,851 sq mi (56,594 km2 ) 4,190,669 
11 Cyprus Nicosia 3,572 sq mi (9,251 km2 ) 848,319 
12 Czech Republic Prague 30,450 sq mi (78,866 km2 ) 10,553,843 
13 Denmark Copenhagen 16,573.61 sq mi (42,925.46 km2 ) 5,707,251 
14 Estonia Tallinn 17,462 sq mi (45 227 km2 ) 1,315,944 
15 Finland Helsinki 130,666 sq mi (338,424 km2 ) 5,487,308 
16 Republic of Macedonia Skopje 9,928 sq mi (25,713 km2 ) 2,071,278 
17 France Paris 244,474 sq mi (633 187 km2 ) 66,759,950 
18 Georgia Tbilisi Kutaisi (legislative) 26,900 sq mi (69,700 km2 )
19 Germany Berlin 137,983 sq mi (357 376 km2 ) 82,175,684 
20 Greece Athens 50,949 sq mi (131,957 km2 ) 10,783,748 
21 Hungary Budapest 35,920 sq mi (93,030 km2 ) 9,830,485 
22 Iceland Reykjavík 39,682 sq mi (102,775 km2 ) 332,529 
23 Ireland Dublin 26,948 sq mi (69 797 km2 ) 4,724,720 
24 Italy Rome 116,347 sq mi (301,338 km2 ) 60,665,551 
25 Kosovo Pristina 4,212 sq mi (10,908 km2 ) 1,771,604 
26 Latvia Riga 24,938 sq mi (64,589 km2 ) 1,968,957 
27 Liechtenstein Vaduz 62 sq mi (160 km2 ) 37,622 
28 Lithuania Vilnius 25,200 sq mi (65,300 km2 ) 2,888,558 
29 Luxembourg Luxembourg City 998.6 sq mi (2,586.4 km2 ) 576,249 
30 Malta Valletta 122 sq mi (316 km2 ) 434,403 
31 Moldova Chișinău 13,068 sq mi (33,846 km2 ) 3,553,056 
32 Monaco Monaco (city-state) 0.78 sq mi (2.02 km2 ) 38,400 
33 Montenegro Podgorica 5,333 sq mi (13,812 km2 ) 622,218 
34 Netherlands Amsterdam 16,040 sq mi (41,543 km2 ) 16,979,120 
35 Norway Oslo 148,718 sq mi (385,178 km2 ) 5,210,721 
36 Poland Warsaw 120,726 sq mi (312,679 km2 ) 37,967,209 
37 Portugal Lisbon 35,603 sq mi (92,212 km2 ) 10,341,330 
38 Romania Bucharest 92,043 sq mi (238,391 km2 ) 19,760,314 
39 Russia Moscow 6,592,800 sq mi (17,075,200 km2 ) 146,544,710 
40 San Marino City of San Marino 23.6 sq mi (61.2 km2 ) 33,005 
41 Serbia Belgrade 34,116 sq mi (88,361 km2 ) 7,076,372 
42 Slovakia Bratislava 18,933 sq mi (49,035 km2 ) 5,426,252 
43 Slovenia Ljubljana 7,827 sq mi (20,273 km2 ) 2,064,188 
44 Spain Madrid 195,360 sq mi (505,990 km2 ) 46,445,828 
45 Sweden Stockholm 169,334 sq mi (438 574 km2 ) 9,851,017 
46 Switzerland None (de jure) Bern (de facto 15,940 sq mi (41,285 km2 ) 8,327,126 
47 Turkey Ankara 302,455 sq mi (783,356 km2 ) 78,741,053 
48 Ukraine Kiev 233,000 sq mi (603,500 km2 )  
49 United Kingdom London 95,957 sq mi (248 528 km2 ) 65,382,556 
50 Vatican City Vatican City (city-state) 0.17 sq mi (0.44 km2 )

Europe, the second smallest and third most populous continent in the world is a home to about 50 countries and covers about 2% of the surface of earth. Europe comprises the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, and is surrounded by Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea to the north, West and South respectively.

The prehistoric period in Europe started about 1.8 million years ago when human beings came to Europe from Africa and developed cultures. It was marked by the beginning of Minoan civilization in Crete, which comprised the literate society of Minoans who built the system of administration. It was followed by Mycenaean civilization, where they built many cities.

The civilization of 7th century which was the dawn of Ancient Greece gave rise to minds like Socrates and Plato. The Empire of Rome rose in 1st century and was weakened by 800(year) due to several conflicts and civil wars.

The middle ages suffered more conflicts and were marked by dark ages, continual weakening of Roman Empire, acceptance of Christianity by almost the whole of Europe, East-West Schism, birth of Roman Catholic inquisition, the great famine and gradual ending of all conflicts.

Europe rose to become a modern continent with the dawn of Renaissance period in 14th century. Philosophy, science, social studies and art flourished in this period.

Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Machiavelli and many others rose to fame. Renaissance spread to other countries. In 15th century, America was recognized and trade started.

The 18th century was marked by the commencement of Industrial Revolution. The First World War occurred in 1914, which led to defeat of Russia and formation of Soviet Union. The initiation of Second World War in 1939 led to invasion of Germany by the Soviet Union and Allied Forces. Then began the cold war in 1946, which involved many silent battles and conflicts regarding politics. With the end of all these wars, European Union was established.

Geography of Europe

Europe, being a Peninsula is surrounded by water on the North, West and South. The major landforms in Europe include small peninsular regions like the Scandinavian peninsula and Iberian peninsula, mountain ranges like Alps and Ural mountains and the European plain where rich farmland is found. Europe is home to many rivers, like Rhine, Volga, Danube, etc, which are the means of transportation. Deep sea inlets are located along the coast. The big cities in the European Plain are Paris, Berlin and Moscow.

Most of the Europe has a mild climate. The northern and mountain areas are relatively cold due to the chilly winds coming from Arctic Circle. The Pyrenees mountains protect the southern countries from cold. Thus, the Mediterranean coast areas stay warm and attract tourists. The climate of Europe is highly favorable for farming and that makes Europe a world leader in crop production. Europe is also known for production of minerals like coal and iron ore.

Important Countries to Visit and Things To Do

The European continent is known for its rich heritage and ancient history. It encompasses everything, old and new and a trip to Europe can be extremely overwhelming. The culture is rooted in the art, literature, music, cuisines and architecture.

The renowned locations in Europe that draw millions of tourists each year are:

Paris, also known as the “City of Lights” is one of the most loved locations in Europe. The Eiffel Tower, Versailles Palace and Musee du Love are some of the most beautiful tourist spots in the world. It is also called the “City of Love and Romance”.

Rome, the vibrant capital of Italy is home to rich archeological remains. The essential attractions in Rome are The Colosseum, Trevi Fountain, Vatican City and St. Peter’s Basilica. Tourists from all over the world visit Rome for the ruins, churches and food.

London, also known as the “New York city of Europe” is one of the most popular cities of the United Kingdom. A few of the many tourist locations in London are The British Museum, Buckingham Palace, Tower of London and Platform 9 3/4.

Amsterdam is the kick off to any student on his European adventure. The famous spots here are the Van Gogh museum, Bloemenmark, Anne Frank’s house and red light district.

Prague is known for its ornate castles and native beers. It is the capital of Czech Republic, located in Central Europe. Czech Republic is the 6th most peaceful country with the lowest unemployment rate in Europe.

Florence is another can’t-miss-city of Europe. It is known as the “City of Lily” and was the birthplace of Renaissance.

Venice is nothing less than a dreamlike location. With canals and shimmering water, it flaunts various palaces and churches that reflect the history of Europe.

IW30.01.2017

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