List of European Countries

Political Map of Europe
Europe, the second smallest and third most populous continent in the world is a home to about 50 countries and covers about 2% of the surface of earth. Europe comprises the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, and is surrounded by Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea to the north, West and South respectively.

The prehistoric period in Europe started about 1.8 million years ago when human beings came to Europe from Africa and developed cultures. It was marked by the beginning of Minoan civilization in Crete, which comprised the literate society of Minoans who built the system of administration. It was followed by Mycenaean civilization, where they built many cities.

The civilization of 7th century which was the dawn of Ancient Greece gave rise to minds like Socrates and Plato. The Empire of Rome rose in 1st century and was weakened by 800(year) due to several conflicts and civil wars.

The middle ages suffered more conflicts and were marked by dark ages, continual weakening of Roman Empire, acceptance of Christianity by almost the whole of Europe, East-West Schism, birth of Roman Catholic inquisition, the great famine and gradual ending of all conflicts.

Europe rose to become a modern continent with the dawn of Renaissance period in 14th century. Philosophy, science, social studies and art flourished in this period.

Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Machiavelli and many others rose to fame. Renaissance spread to other countries. In 15th century, America was recognized and trade started.

The 18th century was marked by the commencement of Industrial Revolution. The First World War occurred in 1914, which led to defeat of Russia and formation of Soviet Union. The initiation of Second World War in 1939 led to invasion of Germany by the Soviet Union and Allied Forces. Then began the cold war in 1946, which involved many silent battles and conflicts regarding politics. With the end of all these wars, European Union was established.

Geography of Europe

Europe, being a Peninsula is surrounded by water on the North, West and South. The major landforms in Europe include small peninsular regions like the Scandinavian peninsula and Iberian peninsula, mountain ranges like Alps and Ural mountains and the European plain where rich farmland is found. Europe is home to many rivers, like Rhine, Volga, Danube, etc, which are the means of transportation. Deep sea inlets are located along the coast. The big cities in the European Plain are Paris, Berlin and Moscow.

Most of the Europe has a mild climate. The northern and mountain areas are relatively cold due to the chilly winds coming from Arctic Circle. The Pyrenees mountains protect the southern countries from cold. Thus, the Mediterranean coast areas stay warm and attract tourists. The climate of Europe is highly favorable for farming and that makes Europe a world leader in crop production. Europe is also known for production of minerals like coal and iron ore.

Important Countries to Visit and Things To Do

The European continent is known for its rich heritage and ancient history. It encompasses everything, old and new and a trip to Europe can be extremely overwhelming. The culture is rooted in the art, literature, music, cuisines and architecture.

The renowned locations in Europe that draw millions of tourists each year are:

Paris, also known as the “City of Lights” is one of the most loved locations in Europe. The Eiffel Tower, Versailles Palace and Musee du Love are some of the most beautiful tourist spots in the world. It is also called the “City of Love and Romance”.

Rome, the vibrant capital of Italy is home to rich archeological remains. The essential attractions in Rome are The Colosseum, Trevi Fountain, Vatican City and St. Peter’s Basilica. Tourists from all over the world visit Rome for the ruins, churches and food.

London, also known as the “New York city of Europe” is one of the most popular cities of the United Kingdom. A few of the many tourist locations in London are The British Museum, Buckingham Palace, Tower of London and Platform 9 3/4.

Amsterdam is the kick off to any student on his European adventure. The famous spots here are the Van Gogh museum, Bloemenmark, Anne Frank’s house and red light district.

Prague is known for its ornate castles and native beers. It is the capital of Czech Republic, located in Central Europe. Czech Republic is the 6th most peaceful country with the lowest unemployment rate in Europe.

Florence is another can’t-miss-city of Europe. It is known as the “City of Lily” and was the birthplace of Renaissance.

Venice is nothing less than a dreamlike location. With canals and shimmering water, it flaunts various palaces and churches that reflect the history of Europe.


S.N. Country and Territory Area in Sq. Km. Capital
1 Albania 28748 Tirana
2 Andorra 468 Andorra la Vella
3 Armenia 29800 Yerevan
4 Austria 83858 Vienna
5 Azerbaijan 86600 Baku
6 Belarus 207560 Minsk
7 Belgium 30528 Brussels
8 Bosnia and Herzegovina 51129 Sarajevo
9 Bulgaria 110910 Sofia
10 Croatia 56542 Zagreb
11 Cyprus 9251 Nicosia
12 Czech Republic 78866 Prague
13 Denmark 43094 Copenhagen
14 Estonia 45226 Tallinn
15 Finland 336593 Helsinki
16 France 547030 Paris
17 Georgia 69700 Tbilisi
18 Germany 357021 Berlin
19 Greece 131957 Athens
20 Hungary 93030 Budapest
21 Iceland 103000 Reykjavík
22 Ireland 70280 Dublin
23 Italy 301230 Rome
24 Kazakhstan 2724900 Astana
25 Latvia 64589 Riga
26 Liechtenstein 160 Vaduz
27 Lithuania 65200 Vilnius
28 Luxembourg 2586 Luxembourg
29 Macedonia 25713 Skopje
30 Malta 316 Valletta
31 Moldova 33843 Chișinău
32 Monaco 2 Monaco
33 Montenegro 13812 Podgorica
34 Netherlands 41526 Amsterdam
35 Norway 385178 Oslo
36 Poland 312685 Warsaw
37 Portugal 91568 Lisbon
38 Romania 238391 Bucharest
39 Russia 17075400 Moscow
40 San Marino 61 San Marino
41 Serbia 88361 Belgrade
42 Slovakia 48845 Bratislava
43 Slovenia 20273 Ljubljana
44 Spain 504851 Madrid
45 Sweden 449964 Stockholm
46 Switzerland 41290 Bern
47 Turkey 783562 Ankara
48 Ukraine 603700 Kiev
49 United Kingdom 244820 London
50 Vatican City 0 Vatican City
51 Abkhazia 8432 Sukhumi
52 Kosovo 10887 Pristina
53 Nagorno-Karabakh 11458 Stepanakert
54 Cyprus 3355 Nicosia
55 South Ossetia 3900 Tskhinvali
56 Transnistria 4163 Tiraspol
57 Åland (Finland) 13517 Mariehamn
58 Faroe Islands (Denmark) 1399 Tórshavn
59 Gibraltar (UK) 6 Gibraltar
60 Guernsey (UK) 78 St. Peter Port
61 Isle of Man (UK) 572 Douglas
62 Jersey (UK) 116 Saint Helier