Europe, the second smallest and third most populous continent in the world is a home to about 50 countries and covers about 2% of the surface of earth. Europe comprises the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, and is surrounded by Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea to the north, West and South respectively.
The prehistoric period in Europe started about 1.8 million years ago when human beings came to Europe from Africa and developed cultures. It was marked by the beginning of Minoan civilization in Crete, which comprised the literate society of Minoans who built the system of administration. It was followed by Mycenaean civilization, where they built many cities.
The civilization of 7th century which was the dawn of Ancient Greece gave rise to minds like Socrates and Plato. The Empire of Rome rose in 1st century and was weakened by 800(year) due to several conflicts and civil wars.
The middle ages suffered more conflicts and were marked by dark ages, continual weakening of Roman Empire, acceptance of Christianity by almost the whole of Europe, East-West Schism, birth of Roman Catholic inquisition, the great famine and gradual ending of all conflicts.
Europe rose to become a modern continent with the dawn of Renaissance period in 14th century. Philosophy, science, social studies and art flourished in this period.
Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Machiavelli and many others rose to fame. Renaissance spread to other countries. In 15th century, America was recognized and trade started.
The 18th century was marked by the commencement of Industrial Revolution. The First World War occurred in 1914, which led to defeat of Russia and formation of Soviet Union. The initiation of Second World War in 1939 led to invasion of Germany by the Soviet Union and Allied Forces. Then began the cold war in 1946, which involved many silent battles and conflicts regarding politics. With the end of all these wars, European Union was established.
Geography of Europe
Europe, being a Peninsula is surrounded by water on the North, West and South. The major landforms in Europe include small peninsular regions like the Scandinavian peninsula and Iberian peninsula, mountain ranges like Alps and Ural mountains and the European plain where rich farmland is found. Europe is home to many rivers, like Rhine, Volga, Danube, etc, which are the means of transportation. Deep sea inlets are located along the coast. The big cities in the European Plain are Paris, Berlin and Moscow.
Most of the Europe has a mild climate. The northern and mountain areas are relatively cold due to the chilly winds coming from Arctic Circle. The Pyrenees mountains protect the southern countries from cold. Thus, the Mediterranean coast areas stay warm and attract tourists. The climate of Europe is highly favorable for farming and that makes Europe a world leader in crop production. Europe is also known for production of minerals like coal and iron ore.
Important Countries to Visit and Things To Do
The European continent is known for its rich heritage and ancient history. It encompasses everything, old and new and a trip to Europe can be extremely overwhelming. The culture is rooted in the art, literature, music, cuisines and architecture.
The renowned locations in Europe that draw millions of tourists each year are:
Paris, also known as the “City of Lights” is one of the most loved locations in Europe. The Eiffel Tower, Versailles Palace and Musee du Love are some of the most beautiful tourist spots in the world. It is also called the “City of Love and Romance”.
Rome, the vibrant capital of Italy is home to rich archeological remains. The essential attractions in Rome are The Colosseum, Trevi Fountain, Vatican City and St. Peter’s Basilica. Tourists from all over the world visit Rome for the ruins, churches and food.
London, also known as the “New York city of Europe” is one of the most popular cities of the United Kingdom. A few of the many tourist locations in London are The British Museum, Buckingham Palace, Tower of London and Platform 9 3/4.
Amsterdam is the kick off to any student on his European adventure. The famous spots here are the Van Gogh museum, Bloemenmark, Anne Frank’s house and red light district.
Prague is known for its ornate castles and native beers. It is the capital of Czech Republic, located in Central Europe. Czech Republic is the 6th most peaceful country with the lowest unemployment rate in Europe.
Florence is another can’t-miss-city of Europe. It is known as the “City of Lily” and was the birthplace of Renaissance.
Venice is nothing less than a dreamlike location. With canals and shimmering water, it flaunts various palaces and churches that reflect the history of Europe.
|S.N.||Country and Territory||Area in Sq. Km.||Capital|
|2||Andorra||468||Andorra la Vella|
|8||Bosnia and Herzegovina||51129||Sarajevo|
|40||San Marino||61||San Marino|
|50||Vatican City||0||Vatican City|
|58||Faroe Islands (Denmark)||1399||Tórshavn|
|60||Guernsey (UK)||78||St. Peter Port|
|61||Isle of Man (UK)||572||Douglas|
|62||Jersey (UK)||116||Saint Helier|