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Eritrea Geography






Eritrea Geography includes the facts of the craggy mountains of Emba Soira, the scorching Danakil Depression, the Red sea and so on. Eritrea Geography provides us detailed geographical information about the different landforms, regional locations, climatic conditions, vegetations, adjacent water bodies and the neighboring countries of Eritrea.

Eritrea Land and Water


Eritrea covers an area of 125,000 square kilometers including the islands along the Red Sea and the Dahlak Archipelago. In Eritrea, water is scarce and the land is prone to prevalent soil erosion. Although Eritrea is located on a hilly region surrounded by mountains. The valley on the central plateau is rich in fertility and best suited for agriculture.

Eritrea Climate


Eritrea receives an annual rainfall of 508 mm and enjoys pleasant climatic conditions throughout the year. In the highlands, the hottest month is May, while winter has almost freezing nights. The temperature varies at sea level between December and February.

Three Main Regions of Eritrea

The first region, lying along the red sea coast forms the narrow eastern lowlands. Ethiopian plateau extends towards the north to form the second geographical region, while the third comprise of the western plains occupying the western border of Eritrea with Sudan.

Major Eritrea Rivers

Eritrea Geography provides information about the four main rivers flowing through Eritrea. These rivers are Anseba, Gash, Barka and Tekeze. Mereb River flows from the upper course of Gash River.

Some of the major towns in Eritrea include Adi, Keih, Agordat, Asmara, Beilul Barentu, Dekemhara, Lddi, Ghinda, Massawa, Senafe, Thio and Tennenei.

Eritrea Natural Vegetation
Eritrea Natural Vegetation reflects the rich biological diversity of the nation. This East European country not only takes necessary steps for its preservation, but also uses it in a beneficial way. Eritrea has different types of natural ecosystems that are spread all over the country. Its extensive grassland systems includes Aristida grasslands, which is in the west, on the other hand, Sorghum purpueo-sericeum grassland is in the southwest and is separated by riverine forest and large tracts of woodland Acacia.

Again, on the northern hilly region one can come across steppe patched with semi-desert and riverine woodland. Eritrea Natural Vegetation on the south-central territory is the homeland of several forest systems. There are Juniperus forests, Acacia woodland and mixed evergreen tropical forests spread across the country. The latter is found in the northern part of Asmara. In reality, the long coastline of Eritrea is a perfect combination of halophytic vegetation and semi-desert, which comprises small patches of mangrove forests. There is no doubt in the fact that Eritrea with its wide variety of wildlife species will definitely enthrall the people. Currently those varied ecosystem is heavily under pressure and certain protective measures are been taken to safeguard them.

There are mainly three areas of forest biodiversity interest in Eritrea. They are as follows:
  • Eritrean Escarpment forests, Debubawi and Semenawi Bahri
  • Forest in the Northern Highlands
  • Riverine forests
It is also thought that the marine environment plays an active role to the natural heritage of Eritrea. There are varied marine and coastal habitats and ecosystems in this country.

Eritrea Environment
Eritrea environment focuses on the issues related to soil erosion, deforestation, droughts and other environmental challenges.

In Eritrea, water is scarce and the land is prone to prevalent soil erosion. Although Eritrea is located on a hilly region with surrounding mountains, the valley on the central plateau is rich in fertility. 4% of the arable land in Eritrea is best suited for agriculture. Gold, zinc, salt, potash, copper, and fish are amongst the natural resources of the country.

Recently the use of plastic bags has been banned to prevent environmental pollution in Eritrea. The natural beauty of Eritrea is maintained this way. Asmara, the capital of Eritrea, is considered as one of the cleanest cities in Africa.

The craggy mountains of Emba Soira, the scorching Danakil Depression and the gentle breezes from the Red Sea make Eritrea a very pleasant location for the tourists. Eritrea receives an annual rainfall of 508 mm and enjoys pleasant climatic conditions throughout the year.

Setting of Wind Turbines for Eritrea
Eritrea environment conditions deteriorated from its earlier state. In the past years, the operations of the conventional energy have been hindered. Therefore a wind turbine project has been planned out for Eritrea by the Global Environmental Facility to be set along the coastal line.