Covering an area of 110,550 square kilometers, Bulgaria is located in south eastern part of Europe and is bordered by Greece, Macedonia, Serbia, Turkey, Romania and Montenegro. The climate of the country, a principal aspect of Bulgarian geography, is temperate with hot summers and cold winters. Bulgaria has a mountainous terrain with lowlands in the north and south.
The geography of Bulgaria also includes the geographic coordinates of the country, its natural resources, land use pattern, natural phenomena, environment etc. Bulgaria's geography has always played a crucial role in shaping the country's trade relations, its economy and its transportation system.